|Scientific Name:||Avicennia rumphiana|
|Species Authority:||Hallier f.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species used to be considered a variety of A. marina.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T.|
|Reviewer/s:||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species has a disjunct range in Southeast Asia and is threatened by the continued destruction of mangrove habitat for human settlement within its range, particularly at the extremities of its range. Mangrove habitat within this species range has declined at least 30% over a twenty-five year period (1980-2005). There is no data to estimate population decline over a period of three generation lengths (120 years). This species is listed as Vulnerable under criterion A. If additional data on past population decline can be found, this species may warrant reassessment and perhaps listing in a higher threat category.
|Range Description:||This species has a disjunct range, and is found in Natuna Island, the Halmahera Islands and Irian Jaya, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Papua New Guinea.|
Native:Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread but uncommon in the Philippines. In Natuna Island and Halmahera Islands, Indonesia this is a rare species that is patchily distributed.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the downstream estuarine zone in the high intertidal region (Robertson and Alongi 1992). This is a fast-growing species, that can grow up to 20 m but often only to 5 or 10 m. It is a colonizing species on newly formed mudflats in SE Asia (Terrados et al. 1997), and has a high tolerance of hypersaline conditions (Tomlinson 1986).|
This species is found in the high intertidal region which is often the first part of mangrove habitat to be removed or affected by human activity, including clearing of land for aquaculture, agriculture and coastal development. Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 30% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.|
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T. 2010. Avicennia rumphiana. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 May 2013.|
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