|Scientific Name:||Sonneratia alba|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer/s:||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is very widespread and common in most of its range, although not necessarily at the extremities. There has been an estimated 20% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Although it has low-seed viability, it is a pioneering species, is fast-growing, and can be dominant along the seaward edge. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. There are overall range declines in many areas due to habitat loss or extraction, but not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is widespread and is found in East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka and throughout South East Asia to tropical Australia, New Caledonia, Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Kirabati, and China (Hainan Island).|
Native:Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Comoros; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of; Mozambique; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common throughout its range, although like many mangrove species is less common at the extremities of its range. In India, this species was found in 40% of 100 sampling sites (Kathiresan 2008). It can be susceptible to storm damage, for example, this species was almost completely destroyed in Iriomote Island, Japan after a strong typhoon in 2006-2007.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the low-intertidal zone. It is intolerant of long periods of freshwater, and prefers high salinity. It is a pioneering species, that is fast growing, but has low seed-viability. In the low intertidal zone, it can be the dominant species along with A. marina, forming a tree line along the seaward margin of its range. It prefers soils of consolidated mud and sand. This species can grow to 30 m in height.|
Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 20% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/ ast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas. This species is planted in mangrove restoration projects in India and Philippines.|
|Citation:||Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Sonneratia alba. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2013.|
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