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Trimeresurus gramineus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA REPTILIA SQUAMATA VIPERIDAE

Scientific Name: Trimeresurus gramineus
Species Authority: (Shaw, 1802)
Common Name(s):
English Common Bamboo Viper
Synonym(s):
Coluber graminaeus Shaw, 1802 [original spelling later emmended]
Craspedocephalus gramineus (Shaw, 1802)
Lachesis graminaeus (Shaw, 1802)
Trimeresurus elegans Gray, 1853
Trimeresurus occidentalis Pope & Pope, 1933
Taxonomic Notes: Coluber gramineus has long been considered the type species of the taxonomically complex genus Trimeresurus (David et al. 2011), as the original type species T. viridis has long been considered a synonym. Investigation of this assignment by David et al. (2011) indicated that this was incorrect and that T. viridis (a combination that hasn't been used to describe a valid species since its original description in 1861), is instead a junior synonym of the Timorese species T. insularis. This recognition alters the generic identity of several taxa within the Trimeresurus genus complex, including T. gramineus, and David et al. (2011) therefore assign T. gramineus to Craspedocephalus (treated by these authors as a subgenus but more commonly as a full genus). This taxonomy does not, to date, appear to have gained broad acceptance, and this account retains T. gramineus within Trimeresurus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-01-19
Assessor(s): Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B., Deepak, V., Achyuthan, N.S., Das, A. & Kulkarni, N.U.
Reviewer(s): Penner, J., Bowles, P., Vyas, R., Thakur, S. & Molur, S.
Contributor(s): Papenfuss, T., Khan, M.S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Wearn, O.R., Wren, S., Zamin, T., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Lewis, S., Lintott, P. & Powney, G.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large overall population, and because it is unlikely to be declining.
History:
2010 Data Deficient

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Trimeresurus gramineus is endemic to India, where it is known from the peninsular region; it is recorded in the Western Ghats from Dangs of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, and also in the Eastern Ghats including Shevaroy, Javadi, Seshachalam and Nallamala Hills (Whitaker and Captain 2004, Srinivasulu et al. 2006, Srinivasulu and Das 2008). This species has also been reported from Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh (Srinivasulu 2003) and from Amravathi district, Maharashtra (Nande and Deshmukh 2007). It has been recorded from Achanakmar Tiger Reserve, Chattisgarh. It has been recorded from Orissa as the northernmost record. Historically, this species has also been reported from Pachmarhi, Madhya Pradesh (D'Abreu 1928). It has been recorded from sea level to 1,400 m asl.
Countries:
Native:
India (Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Its reported to be common in sites from where it has been reported.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Trimeresurus gramineus inhabits hilly forested tracts of Western and Eastern Ghats and also has been observed from dense forested patches in central India. It has been recorded from dry scrub forest, secondary forest and mangroves. It is an arboreal snake occasionally found on the ground, following monsoons it can be found crossing the road. It has been noted to feed on small rodents, birds, frogs, geckos and smaller snakes (Whitaker and Captain 2004).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is collected for medicinal use (venom extraction).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There appear to be no significant threats to this species. It is threatened in some parts of its range by habitat loss through mining, and degradation resulting from tourism.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Schedule IV of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. It occurs in many protected areas. Further research into its taxonomy, range and population size, threats, habitat status, biology and ecology is needed.

Citation: Srinivasulu, C., Srinivasulu, B., Deepak, V., Achyuthan, N.S., Das, A. & Kulkarni, N.U. 2013. Trimeresurus gramineus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 October 2014.
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