Cirrhitus rivulatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Cirrhitidae

Scientific Name: Cirrhitus rivulatus Valenciennes, 1846
Common Name(s):
English Giant Hawkfish
Spanish Carabalí, Chino Mero, Halcón Mero
Cirrhites rivulatus Valenciennes, 1846
Taxonomic Source(s): Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed). 2014. Catalog of Fishes. Updated 6 October 2014. Available at: (Accessed: 6 October 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-05-24
Assessor(s): Allen, G., Robertson, R., Lea, B., Rivera, F., Zapata, F., Barraza, E., Merlen, G. & Edgar, G.
Reviewer(s): Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is common throughout its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Baja California and the northern Gulf of California, Mexico to Ecuador, including all the offshore Islands.
Countries occurrence:
Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):30
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is considered common throughout much of its range.

According to Robertson and Allen (1996), this species is frequent enough to have a resident population at Clipperton Atoll. This fish was studied in the Galapagos archipelago, with an overall mean density of 1.77 individuals per 500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004).
In a survey conducted at Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, it had a mean density < 0.01 individuals per m2 (Dominici-Arosemena et al. 2005). In Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, this species had a density of 0.001 (±0.002) individuals per m2, with a relative abundance of 0.016% (Figueroa 2001). According to Aburto-Oropeza and Balart (2001), C. rivulatus is a rare species at Los Islotes, Gulf of California, having an occurrence frequency below 10%. In Cabo Pulmo, Gulf of California, this species had a relative frequency between 25-50% (Villarreal-Cavazos et al. 2000).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This reef-associated species is a solitary, bottom-dwelling fish that lives in shallow waters (Grove and Lavenberg 1997). It lies very still on rock ledges and is well camouflaged against the rocks. It feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (De La Cruz Agüero 1997). In the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panamá, this species is generally found over deep rocky walls and exposed shallow reefs (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff 2006).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: According to Dominici-Arosemena et al. (2005), the juveniles of this fish are important for the aquarium trade in Costa Rica. It is also considered a good source of food (Bussing and Lavenberg 1995). However, local exploitation is not currently thought to significantly affect the total population.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).

Citation: Allen, G., Robertson, R., Lea, B., Rivera, F., Zapata, F., Barraza, E., Merlen, G. & Edgar, G. 2010. Cirrhitus rivulatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178070A7491007. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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