Justicia pinensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Scrophulariales Acanthaceae

Scientific Name: Justicia pinensis S.Moore

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-05-15
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Hequet, V.
Reviewer(s): Pollock, C.M. & Hilton-Taylor, C.
Justicia pinensis is endemic to New Caledonia, where it has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 5,972 km2 and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 32 km2. The species is known from five locations. It grows mostly in dry forests (including calcareous forests) but can also be found in mesic forests. Its dry forest habitat is among the most threatened in New Caledonia; dry forests have been reduced dramatically, both in size and quality. They have been severely cleared for agricultural purposes over the last century and what remains today are highly fragmented patches that suffer intense predation by the introduced Rusa Deer (Rusa timorensis) and uncontrolled fires. The reduction of the habitat has been estimated at 95% over the last 150 years (Bouchet 1995) and this degradation continues today.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to New Caledonia. It has been collected in four locations along the main island (Grande Terre): Noumea, la Foa, Sarramea (col d'Amieu) and Nepoui. It is also mentioned from Pine Island (the type locality) where it is abundant (J-M Veillon, pers. comm.). It is suspected that the species is now extirpated from one of the localities on Grande Terre because of urbanization (Nouville, Tereka). In Pindaï, the subpopulation was observed in 2007. Its total extent of occurrence is 5,972 km2, and its estimated area of occupancy within this range is 32 km2.
Countries occurrence:
New Caledonia
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:32
Number of Locations:5
Upper elevation limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population size is unknown. When present, this species can be locally abundant over small areas then absent in surrounding areas. This pattern may be due to poor long distance dispersal or vegetative reproduction by suckers.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits dry forests (including calcareous forests) but it is also mentioned from mesic forests. Tropical dry forests are probably among the world’s most endangered of all lowland tropical forests. Because of their propensity to become pastures and their susceptibility to fire, dry forests have reduced dramatically, in size as well as in quality. In New Caledonia, they’ve been intensively cut for agricultural purposes for a century; what remains today are highly fragmented patches that have been estimated at 2% of the original area. Lowland mesic forests have also suffered from urbanization, deforestation and fires.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is lowland clearing for cattle grazing and agriculture, which began in the 1850s and is ongoing. Another threat comes from the Rusa Deer (Rusa timorensis), which was introduced in the 1880s and adapted extremely well to the Caledonian habitats. Its population may have reached 105,000-110,000 individuals in the wild. This deer consumes a wide variety of plant species and also causes severe damage to trees by rubbing antlers against tree stems. The third major threat is uncontrolled fires that sweep across lowlands of New Caledonia each year during the dry season and have slowly transformed remnant patches of dry forest into shrubland dominated by Acacia spirorbis and Leucaena leucocephala, or Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) savannas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None in place for the moment.

Citation: Hequet, V. 2010. Justicia pinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T177847A7469014. . Downloaded on 22 July 2018.
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