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Pleurocera foremani

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA GASTROPODA SORBEOCONCHA PLEUROCERIDAE

Scientific Name: Pleurocera foremani
Species Authority: (Lea, 1843)
Common Name(s):
English Foreman's High-spired Riversnail, Rough Hornsnail
Taxonomic Notes: Bogan and Pierson (1993) recommended that Pleurocera prasinata, P. vestita, P. foremani, P. showalteri and P. annuliferum should be compared to see if these species are actually clinal variants of the same species. However, this has not been peer reviewed. Based on unpublished molecular data, P. foremani should be recognized as Elimia foremani. For this assessment, we follow the current taxonomy of P. foremani as a valid species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-03-27
Assessor(s): Cordeiro, J. & Perez, K.
Reviewer(s): Bohm, M., Seddon, M. & Collen, B.
Contributor(s): Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., Kasthala, G., McGuinness, S., Milligan, HT, De Silva, R., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K., Collins, A., Offord, S., Duncan, C. & Richman, N.
Justification:
Pleurocera foremani has been assessed as Endangered under criteria B1ab(iii)+B2ab(iii). It occurs in only two locations, it is severely fragmented, it has an area of occupancy of less than 1 km2 and an extent of occurrence between 100 and 6,000 km2, and it faces continued threats from habitat destruction.

This species, if not a clinal variant, is extant in the lower Yellowleaf Creek, Shelby County, and Coosa River downstream of Jordan Dam (Mirarchi et al. 2004) in a small area (area of occupancy of less than 1 km2), a decline from four streams known historically. It is still in decline and is threatened by habitat degradation and its continued survival is contingent upon good water quality and sound water release practices at the dam.

All populations should be monitored periodically and habitat degradation identified and mitigated. Continued good water quality downstream of the Jordan Dam, dependent on adequate discharge from that dam, is critical to survival. A survey for potential reintroduction sites within the Cahaba River drainage should be conducted and captive propagation and reintroductions considered. If necessary, extant populations should be augmented, if propagation efforts are successful (Mirarchi et al.2004).
History:
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Indeterminate (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is historically known from three streams in the Coosa River and one site in the Cahaba River in Bibb County, Alabama (Stein 1979, Goodrich 1941). It is extant in lower Yellowleaf Creek, Shelby County, and Coosa River downstream of Jordan Dam (Mirarchi et al. 2004). Georgia (from Burch 1989) is probably a false report (P. Johnson pers. comm. 2005).

Its area of occupancy is estimated as 50 m2 in Yellowleaf Creek, and 100 m2 in the Lower Coosa River. It is found in three localities, combining into two locations, which are seperated by impoundments and 113 km of river (USFWS 2009). Its extent of occurrence is estimated as between 100 km2 (removing discontinuities in species range) and 6,000 km2 (Minimum Convex Polygon around known occurrences, therefore including discontinuities).
Countries:
Native:
United States (Alabama)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is extant in lower Yellowleaf Creek, Shelby County, and Coosa River downstream of Jordan Dam (Mirarchi et al. 2004). It is also listed in the Etowah River system in Georgia (Burkhead et al. 1997) but this is probably a false report (P. Johnson pers. comm. 2005). Bogan and Pierson did not find this species during 1993 surveys of the Cahaba and Coosa rivers. The current population trend is thought to be decreasing.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is extant in the lower Yellowleaf Creek, Shelby County, and Coosa River downstream of Jordan Dam occurring primarily on clear gravel and cobble in moderate currents at depths of approximately 1 m, but it has also been collected from silty bedrock at 3 m depth just downstream of shoals on the Coosa River in Wetumpka (Mirarchi et al. 2004).
Systems: Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The distribution of this species was greatly reduced by the impoundment of the Coosa River and degraded water quality due to pollution in the Cahaba River (Mirarchi et al. 2004).

It is vulnerable to extinction due to its limited distribution, declining population trend, limited dispersal and restricted range (Mirarchi et al. 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All populations should be monitored periodically and habitat degradation identified and mitigated.

Continued good water quality downstream of the Jordan Dam, dependent on adequate discharge from that dam, is critical to the species' survival. A survey for potential reintroduction sites within the Cahaba River drainage should be conducted and captive propagation and reintroductions considered. If necessary, extant populations should be augmented, if propagation efforts are successful (Mirarchi et al.2004). It has been suggested by Bogan and Pierson (1993) that the species, together with other members of the genus Pleurocera, may be clinal variants of a single species, but this has not yet been further investigated.

Citation: Cordeiro, J. & Perez, K. 2012. Pleurocera foremani. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 August 2014.
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