||Pleurocera foremani (Lea, 1843)
||Rough Hornsnail, Foreman's High-spired Riversnail
||Johnson, P.D., Bogan, A.E., Brown, K.M., Burkhead, N.M., Cordeiro, J.R., Garner, J.T., Hartfield, P.D., Lepitzki, D.A.W., Mackie, G.L., Pip, E., Tarpley, T.A., Tiemann, J.S., Whelan, N.V. and Strong, E.E. 2013. Conservation status of freshwater gastropods of Canada and the United States. Fisheries 38(6): 247-282.
||Bogan and Pierson (1993) recommended that Pleurocera prasinata, P. vestita, P. foremani, P. showalteri and P. annuliferum should be compared to see if these species are actually clinal variants of the same species. However, this has not been peer reviewed. Based on unpublished molecular data, P. foremani should be recognized as Elimia foremani. For this assessment, we follow the current taxonomy of P. foremani as a valid species.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Cordeiro, J. & Perez, K.
||Bohm, M., Seddon, M. & Collen, B.
||Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., Kasthala, G., McGuinness, S., Milligan, HT, De Silva, R., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K., Collins, A., Offord, S., Duncan, C. & Richman, N.
Pleurocera foremani has been assessed as Endangered under criteria B1ab(iii)+B2ab(iii). It occurs in only two locations, it is severely fragmented, it has an area of occupancy of less than 1 km2 and an extent of occurrence between 100 and 6,000 km2, and it faces continued threats from habitat destruction.
This species, if not a clinal variant, is extant in the lower Yellowleaf Creek, Shelby County, and Coosa River downstream of Jordan Dam (Mirarchi et al. 2004) in a small area (area of occupancy of less than 1 km2), a decline from four streams known historically. It is still in decline and is threatened by habitat degradation and its continued survival is contingent upon good water quality and sound water release practices at the dam.
All populations should be monitored periodically and habitat degradation identified and mitigated. Continued good water quality downstream of the Jordan Dam, dependent on adequate discharge from that dam, is critical to survival. A survey for potential reintroduction sites within the Cahaba River drainage should be conducted and captive propagation and reintroductions considered. If necessary, extant populations should be augmented, if propagation efforts are successful (Mirarchi et al.2004).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Indeterminate (I)
|Range Description:||This species is historically known from three streams in the Coosa River and one site in the Cahaba River in Bibb County, Alabama (Stein 1979, Goodrich 1941). It is extant in lower Yellowleaf Creek, Shelby County, and Coosa River downstream of Jordan Dam (Mirarchi et al. 2004). Georgia (from Burch 1989) is probably a false report (P. Johnson pers. comm. 2005).|
Its area of occupancy is estimated as 50 m2 in Yellowleaf Creek, and 100 m2 in the Lower Coosa River. It is found in three localities, combining into two locations, which are seperated by impoundments and 113 km of river (USFWS 2009). Its extent of occurrence is estimated as between 100 km2 (removing discontinuities in species range) and 6,000 km2 (Minimum Convex Polygon around known occurrences, therefore including discontinuities).
United States (Alabama)
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||1|
|♦ Number of Locations:||2|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|