Gymnadenia frivaldii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Orchidales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Gymnadenia frivaldii Hampe ex Griseb.
Common Name(s):
English Frivald's Gymnadenia
Leucorchis frivaldii (Hampe ex Griseb.) Schltr.
Pseudorchis frivaldii (Hampe ex Griseb.) P. F. Hunt

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-05-05
Assessor(s): Rankou, H.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M. & Bilz, M.
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

Gymnadenia frivaldii
is very local but often abundant where it occurs. The extent of occurrence is greater than 20,000 kmĀ² and the existing threats for the species and the habitats are unlikely to cause the populations to decline very quickly in the near future. Therefore, Gymnadenia frivaldii is assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Gymnadenia frivaldii is present in the Balkan Peninsula, from Montenegro to northern Greece and Bulgaria. The species extends to the south Carpathians. It can be found from 1,000 to 2,300 m altitude. (The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010, Delforge 1995).

Countries occurrence:
Bulgaria; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Montenegro; Romania
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:68
Lower elevation limit (metres):1000
Upper elevation limit (metres):2300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


Gymnadenia frivaldii is very local but often abundant within its sites. The total population size is unknown and the overall trend of the population remains unknown but declines have been noted on many sites. (Delforge 1995).

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Typical habitats of Gymnadenia frivaldii include short grassland, meadows, fens and sometimes open woodland. It prefers damp, siliceous substrates. This species grows in full sunlight and flowers from June to August (Delforge 1995).


Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no known uses.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Gymnadenia frivaldii suffers from numerous threats including recreational activities, and like all grassland orchids this species requires a specific level of grazing; too little and competitive plants invade its habitat, too much and the diversity of the species is lost. Additional threats are tourism and trampling. (Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

The following actions are recommended to protect Gymnadenia frivaldii:

  • Protection of the grassland from recreational activities and trampling.
  • Fencing the vulnerable sites to protect the species.
  • Management of grazing to ensure the right level of impact.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Protection of the living individuals through legislation which bans the species from being picked or dug up.
  • Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.
  • Estimate the population size and study their dynamics.

Citation: Rankou, H. 2011. Gymnadenia frivaldii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T176024A7175803. . Downloaded on 23 May 2018.
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