|Scientific Name:||Gymnadenia frivaldii|
|Species Authority:||Hampe ex Griseb.|
Leucorchis frivaldii (Hampe ex Griseb.) Schltr.
Pseudorchis frivaldii (Hampe ex Griseb.) P. F. Hunt
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Fay, M. & Bilz, M.|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
Gymnadenia frivaldii is very local but often abundant where it occurs. The extent of occurrence is greater than 20,000 km² and the existing threats for the species and the habitats are unlikely to cause the populations to decline very quickly in the near future. Therefore, Gymnadenia frivaldii is assessed as Least Concern.
Gymnadenia frivaldii is present in the Balkan Peninsula, from Montenegro to northern Greece and Bulgaria. The species extends to the south Carpathians. It can be found from 1,000 to 2,300 m altitude. (The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010, Delforge 1995).
Native:Bulgaria; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Montenegro; Romania
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Gymnadenia frivaldii is very local but often abundant within its sites. The total population size is unknown and the overall trend of the population remains unknown but declines have been noted on many sites. (Delforge 1995).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Typical habitats of Gymnadenia frivaldii include short grassland, meadows, fens and sometimes open woodland. It prefers damp, siliceous substrates. This species grows in full sunlight and flowers from June to August (Delforge 1995).
|Use and Trade:||
There are no known uses.
Gymnadenia frivaldii suffers from numerous threats including recreational activities, and like all grassland orchids this species requires a specific level of grazing; too little and competitive plants invade its habitat, too much and the diversity of the species is lost. Additional threats are tourism and trampling. (Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
The following actions are recommended to protect Gymnadenia frivaldii:
|Citation:||Rankou, H. 2011. Gymnadenia frivaldii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T176024A7175803.Downloaded on 30 April 2017.|
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