176009-1

Cephalanthera rubra 

Scope: Europe
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich.
Common Name(s):
English Red Cephalanthera , Red Hellebourne
Synonym(s):
Cephalanthera comosa Tineo
Cymbidium rubrum Sw.
Dorycheile rubra Fuss
Epipactis purpurea Crantz

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-07-12
Assessor(s): Rankou, H.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M. & Bilz, M.
Justification:
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

Cephalanthera rubra is widespread and often abundant but becomes very rare and local in the margins of its distribution. The distribution of the species appears in small isolated populations and many populations that are severely fragmented. Many populations have been lost and declined through inappropriate site management, lack of pollination, forest fires, deforestation for building and construction work purposes as well as plant collection. However, the species occurs in numerous European countries and is not threatened in a few of them. Therefore, the risk of extinction at European level is low and Cephalanthera rubra is assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Cephalanthera rubra is found throughout temperate Eurasia and in parts of the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic to the Caspian Sea. It is widespread and often abundant but becomes very rare and local on the margins of its distribution. In Britain, Cephalanthera rubra is now known only from single localities in the counties of Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire and Hampshire, southern England. This species is found from sea level to 2,000 m altitude. (Newman et al. 2007, Lang 2004, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland), Kriti); Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:176009-1

Population [top]

Population:

Cephalanthera rubra is widespread and often abundant but becomes very rare and local in the margins of its distribution. The populations are severely fragmented. The trend of the population is suspectected to be declining and many sites have been lost (Newman et al. 2007, Lang 2004, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008). In addition, populations may be genetically depauperate as this species can form clonal populations (Micheneau et al. 2010).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Cephalanthera rubra is typically found in scrubby grassland, woodland margins, warmer calcareous beech and oak woods. It grows in calcareous to slightly acid soils in shade to semi-shade (Newman et al. 2007, Lang 2004, Harrap  and Harrap 2009, Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no information available regarding the collection and trade of this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Cephalanthera rubra is especially threatened due to habitat loss and lack of woodland management, neglect leading to problems of excessive shading or too much light, and poor seed-set caused presumably by a lack of suitable pollinating insects, but also perhaps due to the purported intrinsic partial fertility of the species. Further threats are posed by forest fires, deforestation for building and construction work purposes as well as plant collection (Newman et al. 2007, Lang 2004, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). This species is listed on various national red lists with varying degrees of threat:

  • Critically Endangered in Finland (Rassi et al. 2010) and UK (Cheffings and Farrell 2005)
  • Endangered in Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka 2000) and Norway (Artsdatabanken 2010)
  • Vulnerable in Belarus (Ermakova 2005), Cyprus (Tsintides et al. 2007), Luxembourg (Colling 2005) and Sweden (Gärdenfors 2010)
  • Near Threatened in Croatia (Nikolić and Topić 2005)
  • Least Concern in France (UICN France et al. 2010), Germany (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996), Hungary (Király 2007) and Switzerland (Moser et al. 2002)

Cephalanthera rubra can be protected by;

  • Management and protection of the species natural habitats by a reduction in canopy to let more light in and keeping the glades relatively small as the species required a degree of shade.
  • Carry out control of the ground flora, particularly where a dense layer of herbs has developed and strimming when the flowers have seeded.
  • Hand pollination as natural pollination remains very restricted.
  • Light grazing (preferably with cattle) over the winter can be useful to create areas of bare ground for germination.
  • Protection of the living individuals through legislation that bans the species from being picked or dug up.
  • Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring the existing populations and sites.
  • Estimate the population size and study their dynamics (Newman et al. 2007, Lang 2004, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Delforge 1995, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Citation: Rankou, H. 2011. Cephalanthera rubra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T176009A7170277. . Downloaded on 17 July 2018.
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