176003-1

Epipactis atrorubens 

Scope: Europe
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Orchidales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Epipactis atrorubens
Species Authority: (Hoffm.) Besser
Common Name(s):
English Dark-Red Helleborine
Synonym(s):
Epipactis latifolia ssp. atrorubens (Hoffm.) Irmisch
Helleborine atrorubens (Hoffm.) Druce
Serapias atrorubens (Hoffm.) Bernh.
Serapias latifolia Hoffm. (atrorubens )

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-05-16
Assessor(s): Rankou, H.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M. & Bilz, M.
Justification:
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

Epipactis atrorubens is relatively widespread and often abundant but rare in the Mediterranean zone with a very large distribution area. Overall the populations are decreasing but the existing threats for the species and the habitats are unlikely to cause the populations to decline severely in the near future. Therefore, Epipactis atrorubens is assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Epipactis atrorubens is a European species which extends slightly into western Asia. The species extends north to northernmost Norway and in Russia to the Arctic Circle. It occurs southwards to southern Spain, southern Italy, southern Greece, Romania and has a few occurrences in the Caucasus. The species is absent from the Mediterranean lowland but found in western and northern Turkey, northern Iran and southern Siberia. E. atrorubens can be found up to 2,400 m altitude. (Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2400
Range Map:176003-1

Population [top]

Population:

Epipactis atrorubens is relatively widespread and often abundant but rare in the Mediterranean zone. The population size is unknown, but the populations are decreasing. In Britain the total loss of the species between 1500 and 1999 was 30% and in Ireland was 38%. Most of the populations are small with many non-flowering plants and the decline appears to be ongoing on many sites. (Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Epipactis atrorubens is found in screes, short grassland, dunes, cliff ledges, slopes, old quarries, road verges, woodland edges and open woodland. It prefers dry to moist, often sandy calcareous and skeletal substrates. This species grows in full sunlight to partial shade and flowers from June to July. (Delforge 1995,  GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no known uses.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Epipactis atrorubens is declining due to numerous anthropogenic threats, especially quarrying, grazing, deforestation and recreational activities. In addition, the plant is threatened by urbanisation, tourism and associated infrastructure development. (Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Epipactis atrorubens is included in the following national red lists:

  • Vulnerable in Belarus (Ermakova 2005), Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka 2000), Denmark (NERI 2007), Lithuania (Level 2 - Rašomavičius 2007), Luxembourg (Colling 2005) and Finland (Rassi et al. 2010)
  • Near Threatened in Hungary (Király 2007)
  • Least Concern in France (UICN France et al. 2010), Germany (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996), Norway (Artsdatabanken 2010), Switzerland (Moser et al. 2002) and the United Kingdom (Cheffings and Farrell 2005)

The species is protected in several countries at the national level, such us Belgium and Luxembourg, and at the regional level in France. The species is also included in the Red Data Books of Latvia and Ukraine. The following actions are recommended to protect Epipactis atrorubens:

  • Protection of the habitat, especially the grassland and woodland, from quarrying, grazing, deforestation and recreational activities..
  • Fencing vulnerable sites to protect the species from wild animals.
  • Grazing management.
  • Sympathetic management of isolated populations.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Legislation to ban the species from being picked or dug up.
  • Ex situ conservation: artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.
  • Monitoring and surveillance of the existing populations and sites.
  • Estimate the population size and study their dynamics.

(Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).


Citation: Rankou, H. 2011. Epipactis atrorubens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T176003A7168400. . Downloaded on 19 August 2017.
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