|Scientific Name:||Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich.|
Distomaea nidus-avis (L.) Spenn.
Epipactis nidus-avis (L.) Crantz
Helleborine nidus-avis (L.) F.W.Schmidt
Listera nidus-avis (L.) Curtis
Ophrys nidus-avis L.
Serapias nidus-avis (L.) Steud.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Fay, M. & Bilz, M.|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
Neottia nidus-avis is widespread but rare with a large distribution area. Although the populations are currently declining, the existing threats for the species and its habitats are unlikely to cause the populations to decline severely in the near future. Therefore, Neottia nidus-avis is assessed as Least Concern.
Neottia nidus-avis occurs in Europe and western Siberia. In Europe the species is found in Scandinavia and Finland and south to the Mediterranean including Italy, Greece, Corsica, Sicily and Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, and eastwards to Crimea and the Caucasus; it is mainly restricted to the mountains in the south of the range and absent from the Mediterranean lowland. The species can be found up to 2,000 m altitude (Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
Native:Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
Neottia nidus-avis is widespread but rather rare. The populations are decreasing and the overall population size is unknown. In Britain the total loss of individuals between 1500 and 1999 was 54% and in Ireland, it was 45.5% of the area. (Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Neottia nidus-avis is found in dense beech woods, shady old hedges, mixed broad leaved woodland in hazel coppices and conifer forests. The species prefers chalk and limestone soils and also grows in clays and sands that have a chalky or limestone component. It grows in shade, even tolerates heavy shade and flowers from May to July (Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
|Use and Trade:||
The bulb is very nutritious when cooked. It is a source of 'salep', a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is a starch-like substance which can be made into a drink, added to cereals or to bread. It can be prepared in the same way as arrowroot. A jelly can be made from the salep which is used to treat irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal (Plants For a Future 2010). This orchid is collected for its ornamental value.
Neottia nidus-avis is declining locally due to the conversion of deciduous woodland into conifer plantations, the use of heavy machinery in forestry operation, and activities that increase the amount of light reaching the forest floor. In addition, this orchid is affected by urbanisation, tourism, and related infrastructure expansion, as well as plant collection. (Bournérias and Prat 2005, Delforge 1995, GIROS 2009, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004, Pignatti 1982, Rossi 2002, Vakhrameeva et al. 2008).
All orchid species are included under Annex II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). This orchid is included in the following national red lists:
|Citation:||Rankou, H. 2011. Neottia nidus-avis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T175996A7165845.Downloaded on 24 March 2018.|
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