|Scientific Name:||Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham.|
Gyrostachys gemmipara (Sm.) Kuntze
Gyrostachys stricta Rydb.
Ibidium strictum (Rydb.) House
Neottia gemmipara Sm.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Fay, M. & Bilz, M.|
European regional assessment: Endangered (EN)
EU 27 regional assessment: Endangered (EN)
Spiranthes romanzoffiana is very local and extremely rare. The species has disappeared from known localities but has also been found at new sites in the north of its range. Fluctuations in numbers of mature individuals have been observed at known sites. The area of occupancy of the species is approximately 150 km² and the species requires an adequate grazing regime. Overgrazing, slugs, changes in management regime such as drainage or increased use of fertilisers are affecting this plant. It is protected in the UK and Ireland and several of its sites are in the Natura 2000 network. This orchid is dependent on the current protection in place. Therefore, Spiranthes romanzoffiana is assessed as Near Threatened, approaching Criterion
|Range Description:||Spiranthes romanzoffiana is found in a few sites in Ireland, Northern Ireland and western Scotland but is more widespread in North America. It was known from one location in England where it has not been found for several years. The species can be found up to 240 m asl. (Delforge 1995, Environment & Heritage Service and National Parks & Wildlife Service 2005, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004). The area of occupancy is estimated at 150 km².|
Native:Ireland; United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
Spiranthes romanzoffiana is very local and extremely rare. In Britain the species is very scarce; in Scotland the population is estimated to hold 1,100 individuals. In Ireland most of the populations are small and scattered but some of the largest produce from 100 to 200 spikes. A continuing decline has been noted in the Irish populations. The species tends to vanish unpredictably and often very rapidly from known localities. On the other hand, new locations are still being found (Delforge 1995, Environment & Heritage Service and National Parks & Wildlife Service 2005, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Spiranthes romanzoffiana grows in open grassland, peat bogs, coastal marshes, bogs and damp meadows close to lakes and rivers. It prefers damp to wet, acidic substrates. This species grows in full sun and it flowers between August and September (Delforge 1995, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004).
Spiranthes romanzoffiana is especially threatened by extensive grazing (sheep, cattle and rabbits often graze off the flower spikes) and slugs can be a problem. However, the lack of grazing also poses problems. Climate change is suspected to influence the species and to be responsible for the extinction of southern populations and newly found records in the north. In addition the plant can be affected by changes in management, such as drainage or use of fertilisers. (Delforge 1995, Environment & Heritage Service and National Parks & Wildlife Service 2005, Harrap and Harrap 2009, Lang 2004).
All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The species is listed as Least Concern in the UK red list (Cheffings and Farrell 2005). It is listed as Rare on the Irish national red list (Curtis and McGough 1988). It is protected in the UK and Ireland. Most of the Irish sites are included in protected areas.
|Citation:||Rankou, H. 2011. Spiranthes romanzoffiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T175925A7145229.Downloaded on 16 October 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|