Lopinga achine 

Scope: Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae

Scientific Name: Lopinga achine (Scopoli, 1763)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Woodland Brown
Papilio achine Scopoli, 1763

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-01-29
Assessor(s): van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J.
Reviewer(s): van Swaay, C. & Cuttelod, A. (IUCN Red List Unit)
In Europe and the EU27 countries, a population decline of more than 30% falls within the uncertainty limits for this species' population decline. Therefore, this species is considered as Vulnerable. It should however be noted that both the distribution and population size of this species in Western and Central Europe have declined severely during the 20th century (so before the last ten years).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This is a Central European species, local and very rare. In Spain possibly only in Biscay, in France except Atlantic coast and south, Switzerland, north of Italy via Slovenia to the east, continuous from Southeast Germany to the south of Finland. 200-1,500 m. It is also found eastwards across northern Central Asia to Korea and Japan. The global distribution area of the species is situated both within and outside Europe.
Countries occurrence:
Austria; Belarus; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine
Regionally extinct:
Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Luxembourg
Additional data:
Range Map:174299-1

Population [top]

Population:This is a local species, restricted to (semi-) natural areas. The Woodland Brown is declining in large parts of Europe. Present strongholds are mainly in East Europe. It is reported extinct in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belgium, Bulgaria and Luxembourg. Strong decline in distribution or population size of more than 30% have been reported from Czech Republic, Germany, Poland and Ukraine. Decline in distribution or population size of 6-30% have been reported from Austria, France, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia and Switzerland (data provided by the national partners of Butterfly Conservation Europe).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Woodland Brown is fond of warm, open places in damp, deciduous or mixed woods with well-developed shrub and herbaceous layers. These habitats may be flooded in winter. The butterflies rarely visit flowers, preferring to feed on honeydew, moisture on buds and sap runs from wounded trees. The males often settle on puddles on the ground, while the females tend to stay in the very top of the trees. Females and caterpillars are restricted to a narrow zone under the tree and bush canopy along the edges of clearings where the host plant must be present (Bergmann, 2001). Eggs are laid on all species of grasses, including fescues (Festuca spp.), meadow-grasses (Poa spp.), small-reeds (Calamagrostis spp.) and false-bromes (Brachypodium spp.) and also on sedges (Carex spp.). The half-grown caterpillar hibernates in a grass tussock, where later in the year it also pupates. The Woodland Brown has one generation a year. Habitats: broad-leaved deciduous forests (45%), mixed woodland (29%), alluvial and very wet forests and brush (8%), coniferous woodland (5%).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Changes in woodland or woodland management are the main threats all over the continent. Nevertheless agricultural abandonment and land drainage are important threats in some countries, mainly because the habitat was maintained in a successional change by grazing.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed on the Habitats Directive Annex 4 and Bern Convention Annex 2. In countries where the species is declining, important habitats should be protected and managed. The effects of conservation actions should be monitored by a Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. It is important to maintain suitable glades by grazing or clearing at regular intervals to prevent overshading of its habitat. To improve overgrown sites small clearings (10-30 m in diameter) should be created, wide enough to allow the sun to reach the ground (Bergman pers. comm.).

Citation: van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Lopinga achine. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T174299A7045959. . Downloaded on 23 June 2018.
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