Zonosaurus maximus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Gerrhosauridae

Scientific Name: Zonosaurus maximus Boulenger, 1896

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-01-26
Assessor(s): Raxworthy, C.J., Ramanamanjato, J.-B. & Rakotondravony, H.
Reviewer(s): Bowles, P. & Cox, N.A.
The extent of occurrence of this species is less than 13,000 km², it occurs as a severely fragmented population, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of the habitat due to agricultural activities and there is loss of mature individuals due to collection for the pet trade. The species is therefore listed as Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This species is endemic to Madagascar where it is known from localities in the southeast including Mandena (Ramanamanjato 2000), Sainte Luce (Ramanamanjato 2000), Manantantely and Tolongoina (Glaw and Vences 2007). It has been recorded up to 600 m asl., and has an estimated extent of occurrence of 12,562 km².

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


This species can be common in places, but is generally scarce because of its specific microhabitat requirements. Due to the continuing loss of riparian habitats, and possibly also exploitation for the pet trade, the population is presumed to be declining. Due to a lack of connectivity between riparian areas, the population is considered to be severely fragmented.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This plated lizard is found in lowland humid forest where it is associated with rivers and streams, and it can also be found along rivers outside of forests). It flees into water when disturbed and is able to swim. It may dig dens for shelter.

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

The species is sought after for the pet trade; however there is apparently no current European trade in this species (F. Glaw pers. comm. May 2011).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Conversion of riparian habitats by agricultural activities (mainly rice) is the main threat. Collection for the pet trade is also a threat, but most collection is historical and the extent of this activity as an ongoing threat is unknown. While the species would probably be sensitive to any water pollution, this is not an issue at present.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Some of the sites where this species occurs are subject to conservation management, including sites that are being developed as new protected areas. Mandena and Manantantely are protected areas. Research is needed to verify population trends in this species, and to investigate the effects of human disturbance to its semi-aquatic habitat on this lizard.

Citation: Raxworthy, C.J., Ramanamanjato, J.-B. & Rakotondravony, H. 2011. Zonosaurus maximus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172865A6931872. . Downloaded on 16 October 2018.
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