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Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus (Annandale, 1919)
Common Name(s):
English Khandalla minnow
Synonym(s):
Psilorhynchus tentaculatus Annandale, 1919
Taxonomic Notes: Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus was originally described as Psilorhynchus tentaculatus by Annandale (1919) from Khandala near Pune and Yenna River at Medha in the Satara district, Maharashtra. Hora (1921) changed the generic status of the fish to Parapsilorhynchus.

This species is also recorded from Godavari river in Satpura hill ranges and Eastern Ghats. This wide distribution and isolated records suggests that there is a need to evaluate the taxonomic identity of this species. It is possible that the species known as Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus is in fact a species complex. Further taxonomic studies aided with molecular phylogeny are essential to resolve this problem.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-09-26
Assessor(s): Dahanukar, N.
Reviewer(s): Rema Devi, K.R., Gopalakrishnan, A., Arunachalam, M., Shrikant, J., Johnson, J.A., Rahul, K. & Molur, S.
Contributor(s): Molur, S.
Justification:
Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus is assessed as Least Concern because of its wide spread distribution in Krishna and Godavari river basins. The species is also very common and ubiquitously present in primary and secondary streams of northern Western Ghats during monsoon season. Nevertheless, deforestation and recreational activities on the mountain tops are threatening the preferred habitat of the fish. Furthermore, if the taxonomic research on the species reveals that the populations in Krishna and Godavari are different, the species should be reassessed for its proper threat status.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Unlike other Parapsilorhynchus species, which show relatively restricted distribution range, Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus has been recorded from a wide geographical range from west flowing rivers in northern Maharashtra (Annandale 1919, Singh and Yazdani 1988, Arunachalam et al. 2002, Yadav 2003), Krishna river system (Fraser 1942, Silas 1953, Wagh and Ghate 2003) and Godavari river system (Hora 1938, Hora and Nair 1941, Menon 1951, Devi and Menon 1995, Yadav 2003). Report of this species from Narmada river (Vyas et al. 2007) needs conformation. Thus, the species has been recorded from Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh.
Since the species is reported from wide geographical range with isolated records from areas beyond Western Ghats, it is difficult to predict the EOO of the species and number of locations.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
India (Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no information on the population trends in Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus. However, the species is fairly common in the northern Western Ghats of India and in the monsoon season it is abundant in the first and second order streams (N. Dahanukar pers. comm.).  It is very rare in Arakku Valley (K.R. Devi pers. comm.).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus is found in primary, secondary and tertiary seasonal streams during monsoon season and it prefers rapid moving shallow clear water with the bottom made up of sand or pebbles (Menon 1999). As the streams start drying, the species migrates downstream in the associated river. Species show altitudinal migration for breeding and breeds between June and July when the monsoon is active (N. Dahanukar, pers. obs.). Deforestation leading to siltation and recreational activities on the mountains can destroy the habitat of this fish and such changes are common in the area where the fish is found (N. Dahanukar, pers. obs.). The species attains a total length of 4.5 cm (Menon 1999).
Systems:Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus has no fishery value (Talwar and Jhingran 1991). However, it is caught unintentionally along with other loaches by tribal people (Katkari) and sold in local markets (N. Dahanukar, pers. obs.). Harvesting is not a threat to the species.  It has recently become available in the aquarium trade (R. Kumar pers. comm.).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The hill stream habitats of Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus are affected by deforestation and recreational activities, especially on the mountain tops, in the northern Western Ghats (N. Dahanukar, pers. obs), and deforestation and tourism in the Eastern Ghats (K.R. Devi pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Research is essential on taxonomy, population trends, distribution and threats to Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus.

Citation: Dahanukar, N. 2011. Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172331A6869799. . Downloaded on 16 October 2018.
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