Hippocampus satomiae 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Syngnathiformes Syngnathidae

Scientific Name: Hippocampus satomiae Lourie & Kuiter, 2008
Common Name(s):
English Satomi's Pygmy Seahorse
Hippocampus waleananus Gomon & Kuiter, 2009
Taxonomic Source(s): Lourie, S.A. and R.H. Kuiter. 2008. Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus). Zootaxa 1963: 54-68.
Taxonomic Notes:

This species is named in honour of Miss Satomi Onishi, the dive guide who collected the type specimens (Lourie and Kuiter 2008). Lourie et al. (2016) placed Hippocampus waleananus into synonymy with H. satomiae.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-08-18
Assessor(s): Pollom, R.
Reviewer(s): Ralph, G.

Hippocampus satomiae is a coastal pygmy seahorse that inhabits waters in central Indonesia and northern Borneo. The species is threatened by coral reef habitat degradation and loss. It is only known from a few specimens and localities, and further research is needed to determine its range, population size and trends in abundance, threats, and how ongoing coral loss is affecting the species. Therefore H. satomiae is listed as Data Deficient. 

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Hippocampus satomiae is known from scattered localities in Indonesia, including Derawan (type locality), the Lembeh Strait (northern Sulawesi), as well as northern Borneo, Malaysia (Lourie and Kuiter 2008, Lourie et al. 2016).

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sulawesi); Malaysia (Sabah)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – western central
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):UnknownEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:Unknown
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:To date there have been no dedicated surveys or population estimates for Hippocampus satomiae. Further research is needed in order to determine population size and trends in abundance for this species.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

During the day, H. satomiae are difficult to find, even in areas where they are known to occur. H. satomiae congregate at night, in groups of 3–5 individuals, on small sea fans and occur at depths between 15–20 m on the bottom below reef overhangs (Lourie and Kuiter 2008). Little is known about feeding, but other seahorses tend to consume crustaceans such as gammarid and caridean shrimps, mysids, amphipods, and copepods (Woods 2002, Kitsos et al. 2008). 

Their reproductive biology is also unknown, but seahorses in general are ovoviviparous and males brood the young in a pouch prior to giving live birth (Foster and Vincent 2004). At birth, the young are jet-black, about 3 mm in height and shaped similarly to the adults. They settle on the bottom close to their place of birth. The holotype, collected in October, was pregnant and carrying approximately eight young (Lourie and Kuiter 2008). 

They are extremely small in size, with a height of 11 mm and a standard length of 14 mm (Lourie and Kuiter 2008).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Unknown

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The trade quantities in which this species is involved in are unknown but thought to be minimal, as pygmy seahorses are not susceptible to bycatch like their larger congenerics. The species has not been documented in the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by coral reef habitat degradation and loss resulting from coastal development and pollution, destructive fishing practices such as trawling and dynamite fishing, ocean acidification, and the effects of climate change including rising sea surface temperatures, increased storm frequency (Bruno and Selig 2007, Carpenter et al. 2008).  Corals around the world are currently undergoing unprecedented mass bleaching, which may be further impacting this species (Normile 2016). Further research is needed to better understand this species' habitat and how coral loss is affecting wild populations.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Hippocampus satomiae. The species is listed along with all other seahorses on CITES Appendix II, under which trade is regulated and must be sustainable. It is not known whether this species occurs in any protected areas.

Citation: Pollom, R. 2017. Hippocampus satomiae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T172284A54909678. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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