|Scientific Name:||Hippocampus satomiae Lourie & Kuiter, 2008|
Hippocampus waleananus Gomon & Kuiter, 2009
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Lourie, S.A. and R.H. Kuiter. 2008. Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus). Zootaxa 1963: 54-68.|
This species is named in honour of Miss Satomi Onishi, the dive guide who collected the type specimens (Lourie and Kuiter 2008). Lourie et al. (2016) placed Hippocampus waleananus into synonymy with H. satomiae.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
Hippocampus satomiae is a coastal pygmy seahorse that inhabits waters in central Indonesia and northern Borneo. The species is threatened by coral reef habitat degradation and loss. It is only known from a few specimens and localities, and further research is needed to determine its range, population size and trends in abundance, threats, and how ongoing coral loss is affecting the species. Therefore H. satomiae is listed as Data Deficient.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Hippocampus satomiae is known from scattered localities in Indonesia, including Derawan (type locality), the Lembeh Strait (northern Sulawesi), as well as northern Borneo, Malaysia (Lourie and Kuiter 2008, Lourie et al. 2016).
Native:Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sulawesi); Malaysia (Sabah)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||To date there have been no dedicated surveys or population estimates for Hippocampus satomiae. Further research is needed in order to determine population size and trends in abundance for this species.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
During the day, H. satomiae are difficult to find, even in areas where they are known to occur. H. satomiae congregate at night, in groups of 3–5 individuals, on small sea fans and occur at depths between 15–20 m on the bottom below reef overhangs (Lourie and Kuiter 2008). Little is known about feeding, but other seahorses tend to consume crustaceans such as gammarid and caridean shrimps, mysids, amphipods, and copepods (Woods 2002, Kitsos et al. 2008).
Their reproductive biology is also unknown, but seahorses in general are ovoviviparous and males brood the young in a pouch prior to giving live birth (Foster and Vincent 2004). At birth, the young are jet-black, about 3 mm in height and shaped similarly to the adults. They settle on the bottom close to their place of birth. The holotype, collected in October, was pregnant and carrying approximately eight young (Lourie and Kuiter 2008).
They are extremely small in size, with a height of 11 mm and a standard length of 14 mm (Lourie and Kuiter 2008).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||The trade quantities in which this species is involved in are unknown but thought to be minimal, as pygmy seahorses are not susceptible to bycatch like their larger congenerics. The species has not been documented in the aquarium trade.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by coral reef habitat degradation and loss resulting from coastal development and pollution, destructive fishing practices such as trawling and dynamite fishing, ocean acidification, and the effects of climate change including rising sea surface temperatures, increased storm frequency (Bruno and Selig 2007, Carpenter et al. 2008). Corals around the world are currently undergoing unprecedented mass bleaching, which may be further impacting this species (Normile 2016). Further research is needed to better understand this species' habitat and how coral loss is affecting wild populations.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Hippocampus satomiae. The species is listed along with all other seahorses on CITES Appendix II, under which trade is regulated and must be sustainable. It is not known whether this species occurs in any protected areas.|
|Citation:||Pollom, R. 2017. Hippocampus satomiae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T172284A54909678.Downloaded on 24 April 2018.|
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