|Scientific Name:||Allium schoenoprasum L.|
Allium alpinum Hegetschw.
Allium foliosum DC.
Allium gredense Rivas Goday
Allium montanum Schrank
Allium purpurascens Losa
Allium riparium Opiz
|Taxonomic Notes:||Allium schoenoprasum L. is a tertiary wild relative of a number of crops in the allium group, including onion (A. cepa L.), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum L.), leek (A. porrum L.) and garlic (A. sativum L.).
Two subspecies are native to Europe: A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum (DC.) Čelak. and A. schoenoprasum L. ssp. schoenoprasum (Euro+Med PlantBase 2006); these are primary wild relatives of chives.
Three subspecies are recognized in Iberia: A. schoenoprasum ssp. orosiae, A. schoenoprasum ssp. latiorifolium and A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Kell, S.P., Draper, D., Bulińska, Z., Korpelainen, H., Magos Brehm, J., Labokas, J., Eliáš, P., Smekalova, T., Strajeru, S. & Tavares, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hargreaves , S., Kell, S.P. & Nieto, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Kell, S.P. & Kik, C.|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
Allium schoenoprasum is widespread throughout Europe and is therefore regionally assessed as Least Concern. However, it is nationally threatened in some countries; therefore, national level monitoring is required. Germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage is also a priority for this species.
|Range Description:||A. schoenoprasum is native to many parts of northern, middle, east, southeastern and southwestern Europe, as well as temperate Asia, Canada, the USA, India and Pakistan (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010).|
Information on the distribution is available for the following countries:
Native:Albania; Austria; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (North European Russia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
Present - origin uncertain:Ireland; Latvia; Lithuania; Portugal (Portugal (mainland))
|Population:||A. schoenoprasum has a stable population trend in Slovakia and is noted as common where it is found in Germany and Norway. Further research is needed to gather information about the population size and trend throughout the rest of its range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum grows along river banks and in wet meadows, while A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum occurs in alpine grasslands, on rocky ledges, in crevices and dry places with little soil.
In the UK, this species occurs in a range of lowland habitat types but is most commonly found on thin soils over limestone, serpentine and igneous rocks. It is also known to grow in rank grass on deeper soils and within crevices in riverside bedrock (Preston et al. 2002). In Finland the species is found in agricultural habitats, rocky areas and shores.
|Use and Trade:||
A. schoenoprasum is widely cultivated (commonly known as chives). In Europe the young leaves are appreciated as early vitamin source in the spring and are used as condiment for salads and sauces (Rabinowitch and Currah 2002).
A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum and A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum are primary wild relatives of and potential gene donors to chives. The species is also a tertiary wild relative of and potential gene donor to a number of other crops in the allium group, including onion (A. cepa), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum), leek (A. porrum) and garlic (A. sativum).
In Finland, A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum is threatened by habitat destruction through tourism and has been classified as Near Threatened (D2). This species is also known to have been threatened in the Netherlands by the modification of riverdunes (Mennema et al. 1985).
Knowledge of its national threat status is as follows:
EURISCO reports 174 germplasm accessions held in European genebanks, 76 of which are reported to be of wild or weedy origin. Of the wild accessions, 73 originate from within Europe. The majority of these wild accessions originate from Sweden (40) (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).
|Citation:||Kell, S.P., Draper, D., Bulińska, Z., Korpelainen, H., Magos Brehm, J., Labokas, J., Eliáš, P., Smekalova, T., Strajeru, S. & Tavares, M. 2011. Allium schoenoprasum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172256A6858626.Downloaded on 21 January 2018.|
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