172256-1

Allium schoenoprasum 

Scope: Europe
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Liliales Alliaceae

Scientific Name: Allium schoenoprasum L.
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Chives
French Ciboulette , Civette
Spanish Cebolleta, Cebollino común
Synonym(s):
Allium alpinum Hegetschw.
Allium foliosum DC.
Allium gredense Rivas Goday
Allium montanum Schrank
Allium purpurascens Losa
Allium riparium Opiz
Taxonomic Notes: Allium schoenoprasum L. is a tertiary wild relative of a number of crops in the allium group, including onion (A. cepa L.), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum L.), leek (A. porrum L.) and garlic (A. sativum L.).

Two subspecies are native to Europe: A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum (DC.) Čelak. and A. schoenoprasum L. ssp. schoenoprasum (Euro+Med PlantBase 2006); these are primary wild relatives of chives.

Three subspecies are recognized in Iberia: A. schoenoprasum ssp. orosiae, A. schoenoprasum ssp. latiorifolium and A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-04-14
Assessor(s): Kell, S.P., Draper, D., Bulińska, Z., Korpelainen, H., Magos Brehm, J., Labokas, J., Eliáš, P., Smekalova, T., Strajeru, S. & Tavares, M.
Reviewer(s): Hargreaves , S., Kell, S.P. & Nieto, A.
Contributor(s): Kell, S.P. & Kik, C.
Justification:
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

Allium schoenoprasum is widespread throughout Europe and is therefore regionally assessed as Least Concern. However, it is nationally threatened in some countries; therefore, national level monitoring is required. Germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage is also a priority for this species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:A. schoenoprasum is native to many parts of northern, middle, east, southeastern and southwestern Europe, as well as temperate Asia, Canada, the USA, India and Pakistan (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010).

Information on the distribution is available for the following countries:
  • Czech Republic: A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum is known in three localities in national parks and A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum is widespread along the Elbe and Vltava Rivers.
  • Finland: occurs in the whole country but most frequently in the south. A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum occurs in the south with one known occurrence in central-northern Finland. A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum occurs in the northern-most part of the country.
  • France: widespread, occurs in over half of the country's 100 departments, but is marginally less widespread in the north (Association Tela Botanica 2000–2010).
  • Iberia: A. schoenoprasum ssp. orosiae from western Pyrennes and ssp. A. schoenoprasum ssp. latiorifolium from Sierra De Guadarrama.
  • Ireland: limited distribution, occurring in only seven localities (Preston et al. 2002). However, according to Preston et al. (2002), it is only native in two of these localities (in the west).
  • Netherlands: distributed along the large rivers (Mennema et al. 1985).
  • Norway: A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum occurs in the south and A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum in the north.
  • Portugal: occurs in the northwest.
  • Slovakia: A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum is scattered in mountain regions in northern and northwestern parts of the country (Dostál and Červenka 1992).
  • UK: patchy distribution throughout England and parts of Scotland, but has only be recorded in one locality in Northern Ireland (Preston et al. 2002). However, according to Preston et al. (2002), it is only native in a few localities in the west (mainly Cornwall and Wales) and the northeast.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Liechtenstein; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (North European Russia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
Present - origin uncertain:
Ireland; Latvia; Lithuania; Portugal (Portugal (mainland))
Additional data:
Range Map:172256-1

Population [top]

Population:A. schoenoprasum has a stable population trend in Slovakia and is noted as common where it is found in Germany and Norway. Further research is needed to gather information about the population size and trend throughout the rest of its range.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum grows along river banks and in wet meadows, while A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum occurs in alpine grasslands, on rocky ledges, in crevices and dry places with little soil.

In the UK, this species occurs in a range of lowland habitat types but is most commonly found on thin soils over limestone, serpentine and igneous rocks. It is also known to grow in rank grass on deeper soils and within crevices in riverside bedrock (Preston et al. 2002). In Finland the species is found in agricultural habitats, rocky areas and shores.

Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: A. schoenoprasum is widely cultivated (commonly known as chives). In Europe the young leaves are appreciated as early vitamin source in the spring and are used as condiment for salads and sauces (Rabinowitch and Currah 2002).

A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum and A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum are primary wild relatives of and potential gene donors to chives. The species is also a tertiary wild relative of and potential gene donor to a number of other crops in the allium group, including onion (A. cepa), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum), leek (A. porrum) and garlic (A. sativum).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

In Finland, A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum is threatened by habitat destruction through tourism and has been classified as Near Threatened (D2). This species is also known to have been threatened in the Netherlands by the modification of riverdunes (Mennema et al. 1985).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Knowledge of its national threat status is as follows:
  • Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia: A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum is classified as Vulnerable (VU).
  • Finland: A. schoenoprasum ssp. alpinum is classified as Near Threatened (NT), while A. schoenoprasum ssp. schoenoprasum is classified as Least Concern (LC).
  • Denmark: this species is classified as Data Deficient (DD) (Den Danske Rødliste 2010).
In France this species is protected in the region of Bretagne in the west (Association Tela Botanica 2000–2010).

EURISCO reports 174 germplasm accessions held in European genebanks, 76 of which are reported to be of wild or weedy origin. Of the wild accessions, 73 originate from within Europe. The majority of these wild accessions originate from Sweden (40) (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).


Citation: Kell, S.P., Draper, D., Bulińska, Z., Korpelainen, H., Magos Brehm, J., Labokas, J., Eliáš, P., Smekalova, T., Strajeru, S. & Tavares, M. 2011. Allium schoenoprasum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172256A6858626. . Downloaded on 19 November 2017.
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