Allium triquetrum 

Scope: Global & Mediterranean
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Amaryllidaceae

Scientific Name: Allium triquetrum L.
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Three-cornered Garlic, Angled Onion, Onion weed, Three-cornered Leek, Triquetrous Leek
Allium medium G.Don
Allium opizii Wolfner
Allium triquetrum L. subsp. bulbiferum Batt. & Trab.
Taxonomic Source(s): WCSP. 2015. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: Allium triquetrum L. is a tertiary wild relative of a number of crops in the Allium group, including onion (A. cepa L.), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum L.), leek (A. porrum L.), garlic (A. sativum L.) and chives (A. schoenoprasum L.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2018
Date Assessed: 2015-12-07
Assessor(s): Allen, D.J.
Reviewer(s): Tison, J.-M., Michaud, H. & Molina, J.
Contributor(s): Kell, S.P., Lansdown, R.V. & Lutz, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Barrios, V.
The species is assessed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, large populations in most of its range and absence of threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is native to coastal areas of the western Mediterranean from Morocco east through Algeria to Tunisia, and from Spain east through the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and mainland France to Italy. It is also very widely naturalised in Great Britain, Ireland, Turkey, the Azores, the Canary Islands, the Falkland Islands, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Argentina (eMonocot Team 2016).
Countries occurrence:
Algeria; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Gibraltar; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Malta; Morocco; Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland)); Tunisia
Argentina; Australia (New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia); Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Ireland; New Zealand (North Is., South Is.); Portugal (Azores, Madeira - Present - Origin Uncertain, Portugal (mainland) - Present - Origin Uncertain); South Africa (Western Cape); Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); United Kingdom (Great Britain); United States (California)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


This species is very common and abundant in large areas of its range, close to the sea, but it considered rare in Malta. It is locally abundant elsewhere and populations are considered stable.

Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species prefers humid and shady places, including along streams, in beech-, oak-, and pine-forests, inundated plains and fields, shaded meadows, the vicinity of thermal sources, and in ravines and valleys, as well in scrub, hedges, and in roadsides, along wadis, and in sandy places (eMonocot 2016).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is widely available in cultivation. Allium triquetrum is a tertiary wild relative of and potential gene donor to a number of crops in the Allium group, including onion (A. cepa), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum), leek (A. porrum), garlic (A. sativum) and chives (A. schoenoprasum).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

There are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

There are no other conservation measures in place and none needed. EURISCO reports only one germplasm accession of A. triquetrum which originates from Spain and is stored in the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Centro de Recursos Fitogenéticos, Spain (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).

Citation: Allen, D.J. 2018. Allium triquetrum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T172157A19355168. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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