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Hipparchia azorina 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae

Scientific Name: Hipparchia azorina (Strecker, 1898)
Common Name(s):
English Azores Grayling
Synonym(s):
Hipparchia occidentalis (Sousa, 1982)
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomy of the Azores-graylings is still under debate. At this moment only H. miguelensis is considered a separate species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-01-29
Assessor(s): van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J.
Reviewer(s): Lewis, O. (Butterfly RLA) & Cuttelod, A. (IUCN Red List Unit)
Justification:
Although this species occurs in a small extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO), it is not declining by more than 30% nor shows extreme fluctuations according to Russell et al. (2007). Therefore it is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is restricted to the Azores. H. azorina occurs on Faial, Pico, Sao Jorge, Terceira, Flores and Corvo (although some authors consider the population on the two latter (western) islands to be H. occidentalis). Its elevational range is 400-2,000 m. This is a European endemic species.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Portugal (Azores)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:A local species, restricted to (semi-) natural areas. Declines in distribution or population size of 6-30% have been reported (data provided by the national partners of Butterfly Conservation Europe).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Azores Grayling is a butterfly of sheltered places on grassy slopes on the Azores. The butterflies are often observed on flowers where they come for nectar. The only foodplant is probably Festuca jubata. The Azores Grayling has one generation a year (Tolman and Lewington 2008). Habitats: agricultural land and artificial landscapes (33%), heath and scrub (33%), mesophile grasslands (33%).
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: All butterflies are collected to some extent, but only for the extremely rare species it can be a problem and the trade in Europe is generally at a low level compared to other continents. There is no specific trade information for this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although this is a European endemic with a restricted range, this species is not believed to face major threats at the European level.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No specific conservation actions are needed at a European level. But since it has a restricted global range, its distribution and trend should be monitored closely, for example by a Butterfly Monitoring Scheme.

Citation: van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Hipparchia azorina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T171926A6810197. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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