|Scientific Name:||Grammatorcynus bilineatus|
|Species Authority:||(Rüppell, 1836)|
Grammatorcynos bilineatus (Rüppell, 1836)
Nesogrammus piersoni Evermann & Seale, 1907
Thynnus bilineatus Rüppell, 1836
|Taxonomic Notes:||Before 1983, often confused in the literature with Grammatorcynus bicarinatus (Collette and Nauen 1983).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Chiang, W., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Juan Jorda, M. & Nelson, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.|
This species is widespread in the Indo-West Pacific. It is caught in minor artisanal fisheries and by trolling in at least some portions of its range, however there is no population information available. It is listed as Least Concern. More research is needed on this species biology, distribution and population trends.
|Range Description:||This Indo-West Pacific species is found from the Red Sea eastward to the Andaman Sea and from the Ryukyu Islands to the northern coasts of Australia, including the Marshall Islands and Fiji. However, it is not clear if the distribution is continuous around Indian subcontinent (Silas 1963). There are two specimens from Orchid Island, Taiwan taken at 200 m (Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute Catalogue number FRIP22383).|
Native:Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan; Jordan; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sudan; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Upper depth limit (metres):||15|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for this species. This species is a commonly caught fish by trawling in the south Pacific (Preston et al. 1987).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is reef-associated and oceanodromous. It inhabits open water but is often seen swimming near outer reef walls or deep clear-water slopes. It is likely found in waters deeper than 15 m. It is found mostly in shallow reef waters where it forms large schools. It feeds on crustaceans and fishes, particularly clupeoids (Sardinella and Thrissocles), but also other fishes such as barracudas (Sphyraena) and triggerfishes (Balistes). Its search and attack patterns have been described on the Great Barrier Reef (Auster 2008).
Age at first maturity in Fiji seems to be attained at 40–43 cm fork length (FL) (Silas 1963, Lewis et al. 1983), and spawning season may be from October to March (Lewis et al. 1983).
Maximum Size is 60 cm FL. The all-tackle angling record is of a 3 kg fish taken off Willis Island, Queensland, Australia in 2006 (IGFA 2011).
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This is a minor commercial fish that is primarily taken in artisanal fisheries.|
In Fiji and the Andaman Islands, this species is taken in artisanal fisheries. It is a minor commercial fish that is caught with hooks and lines and is marketed canned and frozen (Collette 2001). This species is a commonly caught fish by trolling in the South Pacific (Preston et al. 1987).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures for this species. More research is needed on this species biology, distribution. and population trends.|
|Citation:||Collette, B., Chiang, W., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Juan Jorda, M. & Nelson, R. 2011. Grammatorcynus bilineatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170358A6768577. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T170358A6768577.en . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.|
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