|Scientific Name:||Sarda orientalis|
|Species Authority:||(Temminck & Schlegel, 1844)|
Pelamys orientalis Temminck & Schlegel, 1844
Sarda velox Meek & Hildebrand, 1923
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Chang, S.-K., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Guzman-Mora, A., Juan Jorda, M., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Salas, E., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E.|
|Reviewer(s):||Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.|
This species is widespread in the Indian and Pacific oceans. Based on its known spotty distribution, it is likely that there are separate populations. It is not targeted commercially, but is caught in artisanal fisheries. Catch landings are generally not reported. It is listed as Least Concern. However, more information is needed on this species population status, landings and biology especially as there has been a recent regional decline in bonito species in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.
|Range Description:||This species is widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, but with many gaps in its known distribution.|
Native:Australia; China; Colombia; Comoros; Costa Rica; Djibouti; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Eritrea; Guatemala; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Madagascar; Mexico; Mozambique; Nicaragua; Oman; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Réunion; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – western central; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Fisheries for this species are not well-developed (Collette and Nauen 1983). This species is mainly caught in artisanal fisheries, and catch landings are generally not reported for this species.|
In the Eastern Pacific, there has been a decrease in the landings of combined bonito species (S. orientalis and S. chiliensis) since 1999 (IATTC 2008). Historical catch for these combined species in the eastern Pacific ranged from about 26 to 14,227 t, with a previous peak in 1990. Total preliminary catch in 2007 was about 17,610 t, a new historical peak and about five times higher than the previous year. The 2007 catches are also five times higher than the average catch (3,622 t) in the last 20 years (1987–2006). Preliminary 2008 catch estimates show a strong reduction (-86%) compared to the same period in 2007 (STECF 2009). However, it is not known what is driving this fluctuation, and is most likely that only a small proportion of these landings data are for S. orientalis, as the majority of the catch was from Chile and Peru which are probably S. chiliensis.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a coastal pelagic species (Collette 1995) that can be found schooling with small tunas to depths of 30 m. It is also found around some islands. It feeds on clupeoids, other fishes, squids, and decapod crustaceans. It occurs at temperatures of 13.5–23°C.|
There is little known on this species biology. Length of maturity at 50% was estimated at 54 cm fork length (FL) (Silas 1964).
Maximum Size is 102 cm FL. The all-tackle game fish record is of a 10.65 kg fish caught off of Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles Islands in 1975 (IGFA 2011). Average Annual Fecundity is 80,000–115,0000.
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This species is caught in artisanal fisheries.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is caught with other scombrids with troll lines, encircling nets (Collette 1995) purse seines and drift nets. For all Pacific bonito species, almost all catches (about 93%) are made by purse seiners, however the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) has noted that these species are also caught by artisanal fisheries and catches are not reported (STECF 2009).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures for this species. There is a need for robust fishery data to support the provision of management advice for bonito in the Pacific and there is a need to collect data on catches from the Western Central Pacific Ocean, and from artisanal fisheries throughout the Pacific. There is also a need to investigate and explain the reasons behind the recently observed peak catches reported from the Eastern Pacific. The limited distribution of some species of bonito together with the growing demand for bonito for high quality canned products require close monitoring of this species (STECF 2009).|
|Citation:||Collette, B., Acero, A., Canales Ramirez, C., Cardenas, G., Carpenter, K.E., Chang, S.-K., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Guzman-Mora, A., Juan Jorda, M., Miyabe, N., Montano Cruz, R., Nelson, R., Salas, E., Schaefer, K., Serra, R., Uozumi, Y. & Yanez, E. 2011. Sarda orientalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170313A6743337.Downloaded on 24 January 2017.|
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