|Scientific Name:||Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål, 1775)|
Sparus crenidens Forsskål, 1775
|Taxonomic Notes:||According to Iwatsuki and Maclaine (2013), Crenidens crenidens and C. indicus are two distinct species. Crenidens crenidens occurs from the Red Sea, East Africa along the east coast of Africa to Aliwal Shoal in South Africa. Juvenile C. crenidens have been found in Algoa Bay, South Africa (Heemstra and Heemstra 2004). Crenidens indicus occurs from the southern Arabian Peninsula (occasionally in the Red Sea) to the coasts of Iran and Pakistan, including the Gulf. Bauchot and Smith (1984) reported C. indicus from India; however, C. indicus either doesn't occur around India or it is extremely rare in the area (Iwatsuki and Maclaine 2013).
Previously, two different sub-species were recognized. Crenidens crenidens indicus from the coasts of India and the Arabian Sea and C. crenidens crenidens along the east coast of Africa. In the Red Sea the two subspecies were found to coexist, with a predominance of C. crenidens crenidens (Fischer and Bianchi 1984).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Mann, B.Q., Buxton, C.D., Russell, B., Pollard, D. & Carpenter, K.E.|
Crenidens crenidens is distributed from the Red Sea, down the eastern coast of Africa to KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and is a Lessepsian immigrant into the eastern Mediterranean Sea from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal. Crenidens crenidens is small bodied and is caught in small quantities throughout its range. This is a widespread species, common and abundant in at least parts of its range. Its distribution overlaps with some marine protected areas within its range but the level of protection within these areas is unknown. Information about the biology and life history of this species is limited and requires additional study. It is listed at Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Crenidens crenidens is distributed from the Red Sea, along the east African coast to Aliwal Shoal in South Africa, while juveniles have been found as far south as Algoa Bay, South Africa (Heemstra and Heemstra 2004). This species is a Lessepsian immigrant into the eastern Mediterranean Sea from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal (Por 1978).|
Native:Djibouti; Eritrea; Jordan; Kenya; Mozambique; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In the northern part of its distribution C. crenidens is caught year round in small quantities with trammel nets and beach seines and consumed fresh (Fischer and Bianchi 1984). In the southern part it is caught principally for bait with seine nets or on small baited hooks. This species is marketed fresh (for bait) or dried (Fischer and Bianchi 1984). FAO capture production in Saudi Arabia was 17 tonnes in 2000, 638 tonnes in 2002 and 10 tonnes in 2004.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Crenidens crenidens is caught in shallow coastal waters, mainly in estuaries and bays. It feeds mainly on algae, and also on invertebrates such as crustaceans and worms (Fischer and Bianchi 1984, Heemstra and Heemstra 2004). In the Red Sea this species occupies sandy lagoon and marsh environments (Ormond et al. 1987, El-Mor 2002). In southern Africa, breeding populations occur in St Lucia Estuary, Richards Bay and Durban Harbour, but few have been sampled in smaller estuaries in between these larger systems (Connell 2012). Eggs and larvae have been sampled between June and January from Durban Bay (Connell 2012). Off Libya, where is it introduced, this species has a definite breeding season that occurs from November to February. In March and April this species migrates from the eastern Libyan coast to spawn elsewhere (Ahmed 2012). Sexual maturity is attained at 14 cm length for males while some females reach maturity around 13 cm to 13.9 cm and 50% maturity for females occurs around 15.4 cm length (Ahmed 2012). Fecundity can range from 678 ova to 9,888 ova and is correlated to the weight of the female (Ahmed 2012). The maximum length for this species is 30 cm (Smith and Smith 1986).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is caught in small quantities and is consumed and also used for bait (Fischer and Bianchi 1984).|
|Major Threat(s):||Current threats to Crenidens crenidens are unknown; however, possible threats include habitat degradation and pollution of estuarine habitats. Further research will be required to determine major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Crenidens crenidens. Although its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range (World Database of Protected Areas, accessed 11 March 2014) the quality of protection in these protected areas is unknown.|
|Citation:||Mann, B.Q., Buxton, C.D., Russell, B., Pollard, D. & Carpenter, K.E. 2014. Crenidens crenidens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T170216A1294924.Downloaded on 16 October 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|