|Scientific Name:||Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758)|
Boops goreensis (Valenciennes, 1830)
Boops salpa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Box goreensis Valenciennes, 1830
Box salpa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Eusalpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Sparus salpa Linnaeus, 1758
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bizsel, C., Kara, M.H., Pollard, D., Yokes, B., Goren, M. & Francour, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Kara, M. & Carpenter, K.E.|
This species is very common and abundant in suitable habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. Furthermore, the landing data indicates a stable population and therefore this species is assessed as Least Concern. However, this species should be monitored closely since it is a protogynous hermaphrodite with late maturation. In addition, it may become threatened by continued success of siganid Lessepsian migrants and this should be studied closely.
|Range Description:||This species is present in the eastern Atlantic from southwestern France (Bay of Biscay), with one record from the North Sea, to Sierra Leone, including Madeira, the Canary Islands, and Cape Verdes. It is also present southwards from Congo to South Africa. It is present throughout the Mediterranean Sea and in the southwestern and southeastern Black Sea.|
In the east Mediterranean Sea, there is some circumstantial evidence that this species is being displaced by Siganus luridus and S. rivuluatus, which are both herbivores and very successful Lessepsian migrants (Lumberg et al. 2004,2005). This species became very rare along the Lebanese coast despite the large numbers existing in the 1930s (Bariche et al. 2004).
Native:Albania; Algeria; Angola; Bulgaria; Cape Verde; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt; France; Gambia; Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Israel; Italy; Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Mauritania; Monaco; Morocco; Namibia; Netherlands; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Western Sahara
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The maximum length of this species is 51cm (Fischer et al. 1987).|
In east Mediterranean Sea, there is some circumstantial evidence that this species is being displaced by Siganus luridus and S. rivuluatus which are both herbivores and very successful Lessepsian migrants (Lumberg et al. 2004).
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) landing statistics show a steady increase of the last 50 years with a peak in the early 1990s at around 4,000mt and stabilizing at around 2,000mt from 1996 to 2005.
This species is very common and very abundant in suitable habitats throughout its range in the Mediterranean Sea.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is the only known vertebrate grazer of Posidonia oceanica meadows in the Mediterranean Sea. It is a demersal species, found over rocky substrates and sandy areas with algal growth until 70 m. Gregarious, it sometimes forms sizeable schools. Juveniles are mainly carnivorous on crustaceans, while adults are almost exclusively herbivorous. Some individuals become toxic after ingestion of Caulerpa (Fischer et al. 1987). |
This species is characterized by a protandric hermaphroditism and the sex change process occurs between 24 and 31 cm of total length, corresponding to a wide range of ages (3-7 years). The size at maturity is 19.5cm, at which almost all individuals are males. Two distinct spawning periods are observed: one in spring, from March to May, and the other in autumn, from the end of September to November. During the first year, compensatory growth occurred in the individuals born in the two periods. The parameters of the growth model of Von Berthalanffy are: Linf = 37.2 cm, K = 0.27, to = -0.53. The allometric coefficient of the length-weight relationship is 3.04 (Criscoli et al. 2006). Sex change occurs at 25 cm total length and 3.75 years of age (Buxton and Garrat 1990).
|Use and Trade:||It is regularly present on the markets of Spain, Tyrrhenian Sea, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Tunisia and Morocco, occasional in France, Adriatic Sea and Israel and rare in Sicily. It is sold fresh (Fischer et al. 1987).|
This species is targeted by semi-industrial, artisanal and recreational fishing efforts. It is typically caught with beach seines, small purse seine, bottom nets, lift nets, and handlines. It is regularly present on the markets of Spain, Tyrrhenian Sea, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Tunisia and Morocco, occasional in France, Adriatic Sea and Israel and rare in Sicily (Fischer et al. 1987). This species has a very slow maturing reproductive strategy (nearly 4 years).
This species is affected negatively by the illegal date-mussel shellfish harvesting which has spread in the Mediterranean (Guidetti et al. 2004).
This species occurs in marine protected areas but there is no apparent conservation effect because it is not a top predator. Fishing regulations are recommended because of its slow maturing reproductive strategy. More genetic information would be useful for the management of this species.
In the Mediterranean, populations of S. salpa (mainly large individuals) benefit from fishing protection and tend to concentrate in marine protected areas (with the exception of Port-Cros), resulting in enhanced grazing pressure (Prado et al. 2008).
|Citation:||Bizsel, C., Kara, M.H., Pollard, D., Yokes, B., Goren, M. & Francour, P. 2011. Sarpa salpa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170169A6727829.Downloaded on 17 July 2018.|
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