|Scientific Name:||Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758)|
Boops goreensis (Valenciennes, 1830)
Boops salpa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Box goreensis Valenciennes, 1830
Box salpa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Eusalpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Sparus salpa Linnaeus, 1758
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Allen, D.J., Comeros-Raynal, M. & García, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Carpenter, K.E. & Pollard, D.|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
This species is very common and locally abundant in suitable habitats throughout its European range, where it is found along the Atlantic coast from the Bay of Biscay, in Macaronesia, throughout the Mediterranean, and in parts of the Black Sea. Furthermore, the landings data indicate a stable population. Therefore, this species is assessed as Least Concern. However, this species should be monitored closely since it is a protogynous hermaphrodite with late maturation. In addition, it may become threatened in the eastern Mediterranean by the continued success of Lessepsian siganid migrants from the Red Sea, and this should be studied closely.
|Range Description:||The species is widely distributed in the northeastern Atlantic from southwestern France (Bay of Biscay) to Sierra Leone, including Macaronesia (the Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands). In the southeastern Atlantic it is known southwards from the Congo to South Africa and in the Indian Ocean to southern Mozambique (Heemstra and Heemstra 2004, Carpenter in press). It is present throughout the Mediterranean Sea, and in the southwestern and southeastern Black Sea. Occasional records from the North Sea (e.g., Swaby and Potts 1990) require verification, although the species may be an occasional vagrant.|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai); France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Georgia (Abkhaziya, Adzhariya, Gruziya); Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Portugal (mainland), Selvagens); Romania; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Indian Ocean – western; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Population:||FAO landing statistics for the Mediterranean Sea show a steady increase over the last 50 years, with a peak in the early 1990s at around 4,000 mt and stabilizing at around 2,000 mt during the period from 1996 to 2005. This species is very common and very abundant in suitable habitats throughout its range in the Mediterranean Sea.|
This species is common outside sea-cage forms in the Turkish Aegean Sea feeding on the feed (pellets) (Akyol and Ertosluk 2010), and accounted for 10.2% of the total weight of one fish farm from 2004-2008.
In the eastern Mediterranean Sea, there is some circumstantial evidence that this species is being displaced by Siganus luridus and S. rivuluatus, both of which are herbivores and very successful Lessepsian migrants from the Red Sea. This species has since become very rare along the Lebanese coast despite the large numbers existing there in the 1930s (Bariche et al. 2004).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Sarpa salpa is an important grazer of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. It inhabits rocky or sandy bottoms covered with seaweeds, to depths of about 70 m. Gregarious, sometimes forming sizeable schools. Adults inhabit subtidal gullies and over shallow rocky reefs, largely confined to the surf zone. Juveniles are found in tidal rockpools, sandy littoral, shallow reefs and estuaries. It has an age related mixed diet; larvae are planktivorous, while young, subadults and adults are herbivorous (Havelange et al. 1997). Some individuals are toxic after ingestion of the alga Caulerpa (Fischer et al. 1987). |
It is characterized by protandric hermaphroditism. In the Adriatic Sea, size at sexual maturity was 20.6 cm (two years old) for males (Pallaoro et al. 2008). Total length-total weight relationship for the entire population is described by the parameters a = 0.00893, and b = 3.1055. Otolith age readings showed that the population consisted of 15 age groups (one to 15 years), including a very high proportion of individuals of one to seven years old. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L = 33.11 cm, k = 0.514, and t0 =-0.392 years for males and L∞ = 40.85cm, k = 0.179, and t0 =-2.606 years for females. Survival rate of females (S = 0.870) was much greater than for males (S = 0.769) (Pallaoro et al. 2008). The maximum length of this species is 51 cm (Fischer et al. 1987). Along the Italian Mediterranean coast (central Italy), the sex change process occurs between 24 and 31 cm TL corresponding to a wide range of ages (three to seven years). Size at maturity (L50) was 19.5 cm, at which almost all the individuals were males. Two distinct spawning periods were observed: one in spring, from March to May, and the other in autumn, from the end of September to November (Criscolli et al. 2006). Maximum spawning occurs from mid-September to mid-October and the period of intensive settlement is at the end of November (Matic-Skoko et al. 2004). During the first year, compensatory growth occurred in the individuals born in the two periods. An annual regular pattern of ring deposition was identified in the otoliths: the translucent ring was laid down during the winter months, while the opaque ring was formed during the summer months. The parameters of the Von Bertalanffy growth equation which were: L∞ = 37.27 cm, K = 0.27 year-1 and t0 = -0.53 year. This species showed isometric growth (b = 3.04; P = 0.84; t = 0.19) (Criscolli et al. 2006).
In the Canary Islands, the parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation for all individuals were: L∞ = 479 mm, k = 0.212 year-1, and t0 =-1.08 year. The overall sex ratio was unbalanced in favour of males (1:0.41). The reproductive season extends from September to March, with a peak in spawning activity in December-January. Males reached maturity at a smaller length (226 mm, two years old) than females (294 mm, three years old). Individuals aged zero to 11 years were found (Villamil et al. 2002).
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||
An irregular and not very important fishery. Separate statistics are not reported for this species. It is caught on line gear, with bottom trawls, trammel nets, beach seines and in traps (in the Canary Islands). It is marketed fresh or frozen, sometimes dried salted (its flesh is not very highly esteemed) and it is also used for fishmeal and oil (Carpenter in press).
Outside the European region, the species is the second most important species (by number) caught along the Kwazulu-Natal and South East Cape coast (Mann et al. 2000).
|Major Threat(s):||This species is harvested throughout its distribution. It is a slow maturing species (nearly four years), which makes it vulnerable to overexploitation. It may become threatened in the eastern Mediterranean by the continued success of Lessepsian siganid migrants from the Red Sea, and this should be studied closely.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in marine protected areas in parts of its range. Fishing regulations are recommended because of its relatively slow maturing reproductive strategy. More genetic information would be useful for the management of this species.|
|Citation:||Russell, B. 2014. Sarpa salpa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T170169A42449504.Downloaded on 24 June 2018.|
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