|Scientific Name:||Panulirus echinatus|
|Species Authority:||Smith, 1869|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species has been confused with P. guttatus (Vianna 1986).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Butler, M., Cockcroft, A. & MacDiarmid, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B., Livingstone, S. & Richman, N.|
|Contributor(s):||Batchelor, A., De Silva, R., Dyer, E., Kasthala, G., Lutz, M.L., McGuinness, S., Milligan, H.T., Soulsby, A.-M. & Whitton, F.|
Panulirus echinatus has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is very widespread and has been described as abundant. Although it is harvested in most parts of its range there are no fisheries data available to indicate whether this is having significant impact on the global population. There have been declines, however the ecological characteristics of spiny lobsters make them relatively resistant to extinction as they need not aggregate to spawn, are highly fecund with well connected populations via long-lived larvae. Monitoring of population and catch-per-unit-effort data is recommended to create baseline data and allow interpretation of future trends. A management strategy for this species needs to be developed and enforced, particularly in northeastern Brazil to ensure the population remains at a sustainable level.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed off the extreme northeastern coast of Brazil (Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, and Pernambuco States) and the Central Atlantic Islands (São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll,
Native:Brazil (Ceará, Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Trindade); Cape Verde; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Ascension, Saint Helena (main island)); Spain (Canary Is.)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Edwards and Lubbock (1983 in Góes and Lins-Oliveira 2009) quote that this species was the most abundant decapod in the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago,
Specific population information on this species is unavailable. There is no FAO data on catches of this species. From information known, this species is most likely over-exploited by legal and illegal harvesting throughout its range and the population will have decreased substantially from its original biomass. It is suspected, that in light of data from other lobster fisheries around the world, that the population has been reduced by at least 80 % (M. Butler, A. Cockcroft, and A. McDiarmid pers. comm 2009).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This nocturnal species inhabits offshore regions with rocky substrates, and can be found in caves and crevices (Pinheiro et al. 2003, Pinheiro and Lins-Oliveira 2006). It can be found at depths of between 0 and 35 m, but is most commonly caught no deeper than 25 m (Holthuis 1991).
This species is an omnivorous, opportunistic, and generalist feeder, consuming a great diversity of available prey from several trophic levels (Holthuis 1991, Góes and Lins-Oliveira 2009). It has been found to eat (in order of importance) fish, crustaceans, green algae, calcareous algae, and rocks (Góes and Lins-Oliveira 2009).
Male specimens have been found to be generally larger and heavier than females (Pinheiro et al. 2003). The carapace length for this species varies from 3-19 cm (males) and 2-15 cm (females), and the total body length varies from 7-39 cm (males) and 5-38 cm (females) (Holthuis 1991). It is thought that this size difference may be due to females hiding themselves away from predators during the breeding season, resulting in reduced foraging time; whereas foraging behaviour in males was found to be constant during the reproductive season (Pinheiro et al. 2003).
This species has an average fecundity equal to 56,160 eggs per female (lowest observed fecundity was approximately 44,000 eggs from a specimen of 16.5 cm total length (TL), while the largest observed fecundity was of 97,120 eggs from a specimen of 19.4 cm TL) (Pinheiro and Lins-Oliveira 2006). Amongst the three most commercially harvested species of Spiny Lobster in northeastern Brazil (this species, Panulirus argus and P. laevicauda), this species has the lowest reproductive potential, although this may be due to the reduced size of this species in comparison with the other two species (Pinheiro et al. 2003, Pinheiro and Lins-Oliveira 2006).
|Use and Trade:||
The species is fished for food throughout its range. In St. Helena and the Cape Verde Islands it is reported to have commercial importance, although specific fisheries data is unavailable (Holthuis 1991).
The Spiny Lobster commercial fishery in northeastern
The main threat facing this species is from harvesting. Although this species has been described as abundant in parts of its range, it is known that the stock of Spiny Lobsters in northeastern
The stock of Spiny Lobsters in northeastern
Many recent studies have focused on investigating the life history traits of this species (Pinheiro et al. 2003, Pinheiro and Lins-Oliveira 2006, Góes and Lins-Oliveira 2009) and it is hoped that there is now enough ecological knowledge to impose the same fishery management strategies for this species as with similar species in northeastern
The species is caught with lobster traps (Holthuis 1991), but is most frequently harvested by divers, a method not regulated by current legislation (Pinheiro et al. 2003).
It is suggested that there is the implementation of a minimum size limit, a fishing season, and no-take zones. In addition, long-term monitoring plans, in particular recording catch-per-unit-effort, should be applied in order to guarantee that the stocks of this species remain at sustainable levels.
|Citation:||Butler, M., Cockcroft, A. & MacDiarmid, A. 2013. Panulirus echinatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 July 2014.|
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