|Scientific Name:||Plicofollis dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1840)|
Ariodes dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1840)
Arius dussumieri Valenciennes, 1840
Arius goniaspis Bleeker, 1858
Arius kirkii Günther, 1864
Tachysurus dussumieri Misra, 1976
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Sparks, J.S., Kaymaram, F., Bishop, J., Al-Husaini, M., Almukhtar, M. & Alam, S.|
|Contributor(s):||Rema Devi, K.R. & Bogutskaya, N.|
This species is assessed as Least Concern due to its very large distribution and the lack of any known major widespread threats. Although it is utilised, there is no evidence at present that this poses a major threat to the species, however, further research into harvest levels would be beneficial in confirming this.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Plicofollis dussumieri occurs from Mozambique and Madagascar to the Persian Gulf, east to the Bay of Bengal to Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (Kailola 1999, Ng and Sparks 2003, Marceniuk and Menezes 2007, Marceniuk et al. 2012). Plicofollis dussumieri occurs throughout the Persian Gulf (F. Kaymaram, J. Bishop, M. Al-Husaini, M. Almukhtar, and S. Alam pers. comm. 2014).|
Native:Bahrain; Bangladesh; Comoros; Djibouti; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Kenya; Kuwait; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mayotte; Mozambique; Myanmar; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles (Aldabra); Somalia; Sri Lanka; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Detailed population information is lacking for this species although it is noted to be stable overall.|
This species is rarer than other Ariidae species in the Persian Gulf. In a scientific survey in Iran, the CPUA for this species appears to have declined from 480 kg/sq nautical mile in 2008 to 4.5 kg/sq nautical mile in 2011. It is not clear why this species appears to be declining in the Persian Gulf. The decline may be a result of by-catch but no data are available.
This species is not particularly common or widespread in Madagascar, however, subpopulations seem to be stable.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a demersal fish species, found along the coast and in estuaries and mangroves. It also enters the lower parts of rivers.|
In the Persian Gulf, this species is demersal and found at depths of up to 50 m. It is known to be found around flats near reefs and may enter estuaries (Kailola 1999).
This species has been collected on both the east and west coasts of Madagascar, where it enters estuaries and the lower reaches of tidally influenced rivers (Ng and Sparks 2003).
The diet consists of other fish and invertebrates. Like other species in the family Ariidae, males incubate eggs in their mouth. It has venomous dorsal and pectoral spines capable of causing injury. The maximum recorded size is 75 cm (Carpenteret al. 1997).
|Use and Trade:||This species is marketed fresh and dried-salted, and its air bladder is utilised for isinglass. This species is not known to be used in the Persian Gulf but it is occasionally caught as bycatch in shrimp trawls, stake nets, and hook-and-line fishing (Carpenter et al. 1997). When caught, it is mostly discarded with larger individuals brought to market.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no threats currently known for this species. Although the species is known to be harvested for food, it is not thought to be at a rate to cause concern.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is not known if there are any conservation measures in place or needed, but it is likely that this species occurs in marine protected areas within its range in the Persian Gulf. Although it is utilised, there is no evidence at present that this poses a major threat to the species, however, further research into harvest levels would be beneficial in confirming this.|
|Citation:||Sparks, J.S., Kaymaram, F., Bishop, J., Al-Husaini, M., Almukhtar, M. & Alam, S. 2017. Plicofollis dussumieri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T169632A1279491.Downloaded on 22 March 2018.|
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