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Clarias magur

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII SILURIFORMES CLARIIDAE

Scientific Name: Clarias magur
Species Authority: (Hamilton, 1822)
Common Name(s):
English Wagur, Manguri, Mangur
Synonym(s):
Macropteronotus jagur Hamilton, 1822
Macropteronotus magur Hamilton, 1822
Plotosus hamiltonii Swainson, 1839
Taxonomic Notes: Clarias magur was described by Hamilton (1822) from gangetic provinces.  The identity of the southern form of Clarias requires verification.  The range of distribution of Clarias batrachus is now restricted to Sunda Islands (type locality Java) (Ng and Kottelat 2008).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A3cde+4acde ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2010-06-15
Assessor(s): Vishwanath, W.
Reviewer(s): Rema Devi, K.R., Arunachalam, M., Dahanukar, N. & Molur, S.
Contributor(s): Molur, S.
Justification:
Clarias magur is highly threatened by exploitation, threats to breeding grounds due to wetland conversion and pesticides in paddy fields, and from introduction of the Thai magur. Population declines of more than 50% in the last few years and predicted decline at the same or slightly higher rate throughout the species range makes it qualify for the Endangered category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Clarias magur is distributed in Ganga and Brahmaputra river basins in northern and northeastern India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh (Ng and Kottelat 2008).


Countries:
Native:
Bangladesh; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chattisgarh, Darjiling, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkand, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Nepal
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

The population of this species is declining throughout its range due to drying up of wetlands.  Pesticide pollution of paddy lands where the species breeds is a major threat.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

It is Omnivore. Walking catfish are mainly active at night and prey on items such as insect larvae, fish eggs, fish and occasionally plant material. Commercial pond aquaculture of the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus), commonly known as "pIa duk dan" in Thailand, "ikan lele" in Indonesia, and walking catfish in the U.S.A., first developed in Thailand in the late 1950s (Tamchalanukit et al. 1982, Areerat 1987). Its impact on introduction is largely unknown. In Florida, walking catfish are known to invade aquaculture farms, entering ponds where these predators prey on fish stocks. In response, fish farmers erect fences to protect ponds, though they are inefficient in floods.

Air breathing catfish (Clarias magur), attains maturity within the first years of life and normally spawns from April to August in both open and confined waters (Ahmed et al. 1985, Bhuiyan 1964, Chowdhury 1981). Talwar and Jhingran (1991) reported, that the C. batrachus spawn for short period just from July to August. In southeast Asia C. magur generally spawn during the rainy season, when rivers rise and fish are able to excavate nests in submerged mud banks and dykes of flooded rice fields. It breeds in shallow marginal waters of ponds, ditches and natural depressions, and inundated paddy-fields during summer monsoon and rainy season and attains a maximum length of 35 cm and a weight of 250 g (Chowdhury 1981). In Southeast Asia C. magur generally spawn during the rainy season, when rivers rise and fish are able to excavate nests in submerged mud banks and dikes of flooded rice fields. Culture practice in Thailand consists of collecting by hand from 2,000 to 15,000 one-week-old fry per nest, which are then transported to nursery ponds (Knud-Hansena 1990).

They are commonly found in freshwater and brackish water. They can exist in cloudy, low-oxygen waters.

C. magur is abundant in ponds, rivers and in the mud they lie to concealed for hours. Found in all types of waters but more so in derelict and swampy waters. It can live out of water for quite some time and move short distances. This is a rather hardy fish. C. magur is widely distributed all over the Bangladesh in rivers, ditches, streams', canals and ponds.

Systems: Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Locally known as Magur, is a fish of great demand and attracts the attention of farmers for its high market value in India and Bangladesh.  This species is very much popular in Bangladesh due to use as important part of the diet for children and lactating mothers and also prescribed as diet for the convalescent of the patients. Furthermore the species can be kept alive for long time by storing in a water container without giving any food as the species bear special accessory respiratory organ. This fish is highly regarded for food due to its high protein (15.0%), low fat (1.0%) and high iron content (710mg/100g tissue). 

Catfish farming in South Asia is of recent origin and culture and propagation techniques for most of the species are still in infancy. However, significant developments have been made in India in evolving viable culture techniques for air-breathing catfishes, mainly C. batrachus and H. fossilis, under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Air-breathing Fish Culture. 

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The species is a highly priced food fish throughout its range and is overfished.  The wetland habitats are under grave threat from human activities.  Pesticides threaten the breeding grounds of this species in paddy fields (W. Vishwanath pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Studies on impacts of threats very urgently needed.

Citation: Vishwanath, W. 2010. Clarias magur. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.
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