Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae

Scientific Name: Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis (Angel, 1943)
Common Name(s):
English Mount Nimba Viviparous Toad
Nimbaphrynoides liberiensis Xavier, 1979
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:
Taxonomic Notes: The current assessment includes both Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis and the previously recognized (now synonymized) Nimbaphrynoides liberiensis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-06-01
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Bowles, P.
Contributor(s): Schiøtz, A., Sandberger, L. & Rödel , M.-O.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Angulo, A., Morris, E.J. & Lutz, M.L.
Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 40 km2, its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be only 7 km2, the population is considered to be severely fragmented, the sites where it occurs are deemed to be one threat-defined location, and the quality and extent of its habitat on Mount Nimba is declining.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the Mount Nimba region in Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia. It is a montane species, occurring between 1,200 m asl to c. 1,680 m asl (L. Sandberger pers. comm. 2012). It is known from three non-connected sites. The Liberian site is a few hundred square metres. The three sites are only a few kilometres apart, but they are divided by unsuitable habitat (L. Sandberger and M.-O. Rödel pers. comm. 2012); however, they are considered as only one threat-defined location. The area of these sites is 7 km2, and represents the area of occupancy (AOO) of this species. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is calculated at 40 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Côte d'Ivoire; Guinea; Liberia
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:7
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):1200
Upper elevation limit (metres):1680
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In general it appears to be an abundant species within its small range, and a survey in 2003 succeeded in locating several individuals, even during the cold season when they are supposed to be inactive. The population is considered to be stable at the moment and over the past ten years (L. Sandberger and M.-O. Rödel pers. comm. 2012); however, there was a decline in the past and it might not have fully recovered from this (L. Sandberger pers. comm. 2012). The site in Liberia was previously affected by mining, and while there is no population information of this species before the mining, it used to be considered common and is now quite rare in these areas (L. Sandberger and M.-O. Rödel pers. comm. 2012). Its population is considered to be severely fragmented (L. Sandberger pers. comm. 2013).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a species of montane grassland exclusively (L. Sandberger and M.-O. Rödel pers. comm. 2012). It is a viviparous species, with the female nourishing the young internally prior to the birth of small toadlets. It is not tolerant to disturbance (L. Sandberger and M.-O. Rödel pers. comm. 2012).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no reports of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve has been inscribed on UNESCO's List of World Heritage in Danger due to a proposed iron ore mining concession to an international consortium and the arrival of a large contingent of refugees to areas near the Guinean part of the reserve (UNESCO 2013). There is also deforestation due to agricultural encroachment (UNESCO 2013). Fires in the montane grassland might also be a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Part of the population occurs in the Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve, part of which is a World Heritage Site. However, improved management of the site is required. It needs to be asserted that Mount Nimba stays protected. The species is listed on CITES Appendix I. The population trends should be monitored.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2014. Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T16793075A16793120. . Downloaded on 21 August 2018.
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