|Scientific Name:||Petromyzon marinus|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Contributor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, and lack of major threats. Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable, or the species may be declining but not fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under Criterion A (reduction in population size).
|Range Description:||Range in the northeast Atlantic extends from Norway, Iceland, and the Barents Sea south to northern Africa, including the western Mediterranean Sea. In the northwest Atlantic, the range extends from Labrador, Canada, to the Gulf of Mexico in Florida, USA. Landlocked populations occur in the Great Lakes, Finger Lakes, Oneida Lake, and Lake Champlain. Construction of canals allowed access to Upper Great Lakes (above Lake Ontario).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Canada; Croatia; Denmark; Egypt; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greenland; Iceland; Ireland; Isle of Man; Italy; Latvia; Libya; Lithuania; Malta; Mexico; Monaco; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tunisia; Turkey; United Kingdom; United States
Regionally extinct:Czech Republic
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Arctic Sea; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.
Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Adults migrate from the ocean or lake to spawning streams. Landlocked populations in lakes may migrate up to about 50 miles upstream for spawning. Anadromous populations with access to the ocean migrate up to a couple hundred miles. Females deposit numerous small eggs in nests made by males in gravel, sand, and rubble of streams with moderately strong current. Larvae burrow in sand and silt bottom in quiet water downstream from spawning areas and filter-feed on plankton and detritus.|
|Major Threat(s):||Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.|
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Petromyzon marinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 October 2014.|
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