Carassius auratus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Goldfish
French Poisson rouge
Carassius discolor Basilewsky, 1855
Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) ssp. wui Tchang, 1930
Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 ssp. argenteaphthalmus Nguyen, 2001
Carassius burgeri Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
Carassius coeruleus Basilewsky, 1855
Carassius discolor Basilewsky, 1855
Carassius encobia Bonaparte, 1845
Carassius encobia Bonaparte, 1845
Carassius grandoculis Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
Carassius langsdorfii Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
Carassius pekinensis Basilewsky, 1855
Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) ssp. cantonensis Tchang, 1933
Cyprinus auratus Linnaeus, 1758
Cyprinus gibelioides Cantor, 1842
Cyprinus gibelioides Cantor, 1842
Cyprinus mauritianus Bennett, 1832
Cyprinus chinensis Gronow, 1854
Cyprinus maillardi Guichenot, 3
Cyprinus nigrescens Günther, 1868
Cyprinus thoracatus Valenciennes 1842
Neocarassius ventricosus Castelnau, 1872
Taxonomic Notes:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-08-04
Assessor(s): Huckstorf, V. & Freyhof, J.
Reviewer(s): Ng, H.H., Kullander, S.O., Rainboth, W., Baird, I. & Allen, D.
The species is assessed as Least Concern as it has a large distribution area and there are no known widespread threats to this species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is reported to be native to East Asia: from the Amur River to the Pearl River basin including the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan (Freyhof and Kottelat 2007). It was domesticated in China more than 1,000 years ago, introduced to Japan in the 16th century and from Japan imported to Europe: Portugal 1611, England 1691 and France 1755. From then it was introduced throughout Europe and most of the world.

It was introduced throughout the world as the Asian form of the goldfish. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

This is possibly the species (or Carassioides acuminatus) "Pa Fek" that has been introduced into the Nam Theun reservoir in Lao PDR where it has established very well.
Countries occurrence:
China; Hong Kong; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Taiwan, Province of China
Afghanistan; Albania; Australia; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Japan; Lithuania; Macao; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova; Myanmar; Namibia; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Norway; Pakistan; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Seychelles; Singapore; Slovakia; South Africa; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Thailand; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no information available on the species' population within its natural distribution range.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds and ditches (Man and Hodgkiss 1981, Etnier and Starnes 1993) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Billard 1997). It occurs in eutrophic fresh and brackish waters, well vegetated ponds and canals (Kottelat and Freyhof 2007). The maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt, but it is unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Schwartz 1964). It feeds on a wide range of food including plants, small crustaceans, insects, and detritus (Kottelat and Freyhof 2007). The species usually lives up to about 20 years under artificial conditions.

It is oviparous, with pelagic larvae. It spawns when water temperatures reach 15-20 °C. Juveniles require high temperature to grow. Individual females spawn with a few males in dense vegetation. The eggs are sticky, attached to water plants or other submerged objectives.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is valued as ornamental fish for ponds and aquaria; it is edible but rarely eaten (Frimodt 1995). It is also used as an experimental species (Robinson et al. 1991).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No threats to this species are known.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: None required.

Citation: Huckstorf, V. & Freyhof, J. 2013. Carassius auratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T166083A1110472. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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