|Scientific Name:||Percina pantherina|
|Species Authority:||(Moore & Reeves, 1955)|
Hadropterus pantherinus Moore & Reeves, 1955
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Endangered because extent of occurrence is near 5,000 sq km, area of occupancy may not exceed 500 sq km, distribution appears to be severely fragmented by impoundments, and habitat is subject to chronic degradation that may be causing a slow population decline.
|Range Description:||Range includes the Little River system (Red River drainage) of southeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Arkansas; upper Little River (above Pine Creek Reservoir), Glover River, Mountain Fork River (above Broken Bow Reservoir), Cossatot River (above Gillham Reservoir), and Robinson Fork of the Rolling Fork River (James and Maughan 1989, Williams et al. 1999).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is restricted to five river drainages (Echelle et al. 1999, Williams et al. 1999). Within the upper Little River, Glover, and Mountain Fork river drainages, the species is represented by multiple locations in the mainstem and several tributaries; the Robinson Fork and Cassatot drainages each are represented by only a few sites within relatively short sections of stream (see maps in Zale et al. 1994 and Williams et al. 1999).
Total adult population size is uncertain, but Williams et al. (1999) estimated it to be in the 100,000s.
USFWS (1990) categorized the status as "stable." As of the 1980s, distribution and abundance appeared to be stable in the Glover River drainage (James 1989).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations (10 years is longer than three generations) is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.
A base model created from life history data indicated a six percent probability that the Leopard Darter would go extinct in 50 years (Williams et al. 1999). However, the robustness of this analysis is unknown.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Clear, upland small to medium rivers, usually in pools 20–80 cm deep over gravel, rubble or boulders in current less than 20 cm/s (Jones et al. 1984, Page and Burr 1991). In Glover River, it lived in pools in summer, fall, and winter, usually at water depths of 25–75 cm, over substrates of cobble and boulder where no current was detectable; it began moving into riffles in late February (James and Maughan 1989, James et al. 1991). Apparently not in smaller headwater tributaries (Matthews and Moseley 1990). In Glover River, it spawned in riffles at depths of 30-90 cm over predominantly gravel substrates where current was 0–50 cm/s; eggs were buried in deposits of fine gravel between coarse gravel and rubble (James and Maughan 1989).|
Factors limiting the recovery of the Leopard Darter include water quality degradation caused by timber and agricultural industries, drought, poorly constructed road crossings, and impoundments.
"Except in the Glover River, the current distribution consists of constricted populations in upper reaches of the former range isolated by impoundments. Whereas populations in the upper Little River and Mountain Fork are widely distributed and relatively secure, those in the Cossatot and Robinson Fork are precariously vulnerable to extirpation because they consist of few individuals, are geographically localized, and occupy no tributary refugia. Impoundment of the Glover River would place headwater populations there in similar jeopardy and eliminate populations and habitat within and below the reservoir. " (Zale et al. 1994).
Hypolimnetic water release has led to losses of populations downstream from reservoirs. Expanding pine monoculture has resulted in increased siltation of stream bottoms (W. Matthews pers. comm. 1995). Potential threats include further loss of habitat due to dam/reservoir construction. Water pollution deriving from a lumber treatment waste pond has caused fish kills in the Cossatot River (Matthews and Moseley 1990). Heavy recreational use of habitat is also a potential threat.
Research reproductive biology, alternate habitats.
Survey known locations to determine population sizes.
Preserve existing localities and prohibit human access.
|Citation:||NatureServe 2014. Percina pantherina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 August 2015.|
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