|Scientific Name:||Holacanthus limbaughi|
|Species Authority:||Baldwin, 1963|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Craig, M.T., Pyle, R. & Rocha, L.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
This species has a highly restricted distribution with the entirety of its population confined to reef habitat in a single location (Clipperton Atoll), with an extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 10 km2. Regional experts support the plausible threat of the increased duration and frequency of ENSO events that can cause severe and rapid declines for restricted-range, shallow-water species in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Because it is found in deeper water and therefore is not expected to decline as quickly as more shallow-water species, it is listed as Near Threatened under Criterion D2.
|Range Description:||This little-known species is endemic to Clipperton Island (France) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is present nearshore at 6-10 m, but also occurs at deeper depths to 100 m (Baldwin 1963, Allen 1980). Clipperton Island has an estimated area of less than 10 km2, and less than 4 km2 of reef habitat.|
Native:France (Clipperton I.)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Baldwin (1963) reports that it was fairly common close to shore. According to Robertson and Allen (1996), this fish is commonly seen and locally abundant at Clipperton Island.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||There appears to be little information other than it has been collected at a coral atoll locality (Clipperton Island).|
|Use and Trade:||As the species is distributed at such a remote location, collection of animals for the aquarium trade is limited and it is considered to be a very expensive fish (Endoh 2007).|
This species has a highly restricted distribution with the entirety of its population confined to reef habitat in the Clipperton Atoll,with an area of occupancy estimated to be less than <10 km2. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g., the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama and the offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). Given this species restricted distribution, oceanographic environmental changes, such as those associated with future ENSO events, may have detrimental effects on the survival of this species. However, this species is found in deeper waters and declines for this species may not be as severe as for other more shallow-water species.
There do not appear to be conservation measures in place for this species. The species does not appear to have been recorded from any marine protected areas. This species should be carefully monitored, given its restricted range and reef-restricted habitat.
|Citation:||Craig, M.T., Pyle, R. & Rocha, L.A. 2010. Holacanthus limbaughi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 August 2014.|
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