|Scientific Name:||Neritina pulligera|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1767)|
Nerita pulligera Linnaeus, 1767
Neritina bruguierei Recluz, 1841
Neritina rara Dufo, 1840
|Taxonomic Notes:||Several subspecies have been described. In the western Indian Ocean, Neritina pulligera knorii and Neritina pulligera stumpfi are present. Two synonyms are recognized: Neritina bruguierei Recluz 1841 and Neritina rara Dufo 1840.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Gerlach, J., Madhyastha, A. & Köhler, F.|
|Reviewer(s):||Dey, A., Mavinkurve, R.G., Madhyastha, N.A., Brooks, E., Collen, B. & Böhm, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., McGuinness, S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Kasthala, G., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K. & Collins, A.|
Neritina pulligera has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is considered as Near Threatened by the IUCN Pan-Africa regional assessment (IUCN 2010), as a result of habitat degradation. However, despite localised threats in parts of the species range, this species is widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific region, and is not considered to be at risk.
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Neritina pulligera has been documented across South-East Asia, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, New Guinea, Palau, Guam, Caroline Islands, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Northern Australia, New Caledonia and Fiji (Haynes 1988). In Africa, this species is known from the East African coast south to South Africa (Brown 1994, Appleton 1996). It is also found in the Comoros Islands (Starmühlner 1976), Madagascar (Haynes 1988) and Seychelles (Gerlach 2006).|
Native:Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland); Comoros; Fiji; Guam; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Papua, Sulawesi, Sumatera); Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island), Rodrigues); Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; New Caledonia; Palau; Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea (main island group)); Philippines; Réunion; Seychelles (Seychelles (main island group)); Solomon Islands (Santa Cruz Is., South Solomons); South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal); Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Vanuatu
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is little population data available for this species. Abundance data from the Caroline Islands shows a population density of 2-7 individuals per m2 (Bright 1982).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in fast-flowing freshwater streams and rivers with rocky substrates (Haynes 1990). Throughout its range this species inhabits rivers and streams in close proximity to the tidal influence of the ocean, so can be found in brackish waters.|
This species is widespread throughout the Indo-Australian Archipelago, however the degradation of watercourses across its range may pose a potential threat to this species. Pollution is a major problem currently facing many freshwater ecosystems across South East Asia (UNEP 1999). The introduction of exotic species of fish into some rivers in Papua New Guinea may also adversely affect freshwater snails, either directly through predation or indirectly by altering benthic ecosystems (Dudgeon and Smith 2006).
In 2009 this species was listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN Pan-Africa Freshwater Biodiversity regional assessment, based upon almost qualifying as Vulnerable under criterion A (population decline). There is the potential of a 20% decline in the species in Africa as a result of major threats within this part of the species range. Residential and recreational development in South Africa, aquaculture in Tanzania (Rufiji River delta) and tractor harvesting for prawns in Mozambique has lead to declines in the quality and extent of habitat. Further threats include Alcoa titanium and dune mining, and sedimentation across southern Africa (IUCN 2010).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. In the southern African part of the species range, ecological impact studies are required for all coastal developments affecting the environment (IUCN 2010). Further research is needed into the species population, biology, ecology and potential threats.|
|Citation:||Gerlach, J., Madhyastha, A. & Köhler, F. 2011. Neritina pulligera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2015.|
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