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Limonium fruticans

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA MAGNOLIOPSIDA PLUMBAGINALES PLUMBAGINACEAE

Scientific Name: Limonium fruticans
Species Authority: Kuntze
Common Name(s):
Spanish Siempreviva de El Fraile, Siempreviva

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-06
Assessor(s): Santos Guerra, A., Martín Cáceres, K., Marrero Gómez, M.V. & Santos Gutiérrez, E.
Reviewer(s): Reyes Betancort, J.A., Peraza Zurita, M.D. & Bilz, M.
Justification:
Limonium fruticans is classed as Endangered due to its highly restricted distribution. It is distributed into three subpopulations, with an area of occupancy of 4 km2 and its habitat is highly affected by anthropogenic impacts. Its small distribution range, along with competition phenomena, predation and human-generated impacts, threat the conservation of the species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Limonium fruticans is endemic to the island of Tenerife, the Canary Islands, Spain (Santos Guerra et al. 2004), where it occurs between 0 and 300 m asl, on the northwestern part of the island. It is found distributed into three subpopulations in Teno: El Fraile, Tamargo and Faro de Teno (Gobierno de Canarias 2009). Its area of occupancy is 4 km² (Santos Guerra et al. 2004).
Countries:
Native:
Spain (Canary Is.)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Its total population size has been reported to be 6,757 individuals (Santos Guerra et al. 2004). The number of specimens could be even higher, for one subpopulation was not visited. The subpopulations present slow dynamics and low recruitment but population trend seems to be progressive (Gobierno de Canarias 2009).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This small shrub grows on xerophile and halophile sites, on steep slopes, within communities such as Ceropegio dichotomae-Euphorbietum aphyllae, though it can also colonize more anthropised sites. Frequent accompanying species are Euphorbia canariensis, Euphorbia balsamifera, Euphorbia aphylla, Asparagus umbellatus, Schizogyne sericea, Kleinia neriifolia and Ceropegia dichotoma (Santos Guerra et al. 2004).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It has been collected because of its ornamental value.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Infrastructure development and the presence of a road in the surroundings are the main threats affecting this species (Santos Guerra et al. 2004), along with trampling and collection due to the easy access to the area. Predation by rabbits and competition with exotic species also exert pressure on the species. Local landslides and cleaning works on road edges have been also reported as threats (J.A. Reyes-Betancort pers. comm. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is included as species with “Protección Especial” in the national list of species in regime of special protection of Spain and as species "de interés para los ecosistemas canarios" in the catalogue of protected species of the Canary Islands. It is listed EN B2ab(iii,v) in the Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008).
 
The species occurs within the protected area Parque Rural de Teno (SCI) (Santos Guerra et al. 2004). Plant material is stored in the germplasm banks of Jardín Botánico Viera y Clavijo and Servicio de Biodiversidad de la Viceconsejería de Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Canarias. At least one subpopulation is object of invasive species control plans.

Seeds from every subpopulation should be stored in germplasm banks. Ex situ cultivation and micropropagation should be developed, as well as research about is reproductive biology and population trends monitoring. Exotic species eradication plans and access control and surveillance measures should be established. Its proximity to Limoniun arborescens should be clarified through research at molecular and morphological scale.

Citation: Santos Guerra, A., Martín Cáceres, K., Marrero Gómez, M.V. & Santos Gutiérrez, E. 2013. Limonium fruticans. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.
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