|Scope: Global & Europe|
|Scientific Name:||Echium pininana Webb & Berthel.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ac(iv) (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Santos Guerra, A. & Reyes Betancort, J.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bilz, M. & Peraza Zurita, M.D.|
Echium pininana is classified as Endangered due to its restricted distribution range, with a very small area of occupancy of 7.25 km². Its population appears fragmented and fluctuations have been observed in the number of mature individuals. The progressive abandonment of forest exploitation activities leads to a closure of the forest that is not favourable for the expansion of this heliophile species.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the island of La Palma, the Canary Islands, Spain, where it grows between 675 and 1,400 m asl, distributed into seven subpopulations, on the mountains of the northeastern part of the island. Its area of occupancy has been estimated in 7.25 km² (Gobierno de Canarias 2009).|
It is believed that new subpopulations could be found in the future.
Native:Spain (Canary Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population size has been determined to be 13,023 individuals, unevenly distributed so the number of individuals present in each subpopulation varies from six to more than a thousand. Fluctuations have been reported in the recorded data and it has been suggested that they are due the biology of the species (Gobierno de Canarias 2009). The presence of reproductive individuals is low (Dirección General de Medio Natural y Política Forestal del MARM 2007).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It grows on deep and slightly acid soils, on sun exposed slopes or gaps within the laurel-like evergreen forest known as monteverde. Frequent accompanying species are Erica arborea, Myrica faya, Laurus novocanariensis and Cedronella canariensis (Gobierno de Canarias 2009).|
|Use and Trade:||In the past this species was used as forage crop. Nowadays it is used in gardening as an ornamental species, at international level.|
|Major Threat(s):||No threat has been described for this species apart from natural competition with other species when colonizing gaps and open areas within the forest. However, the number of individuals seems to decrease in areas where the forest appears closed and operations that result in the creation of gaps have ceased (Gobierno de Canarias 2009).|
This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is included as species with “Protección Especial” in the national list of species in regime of special protection of Spain and as species "de interés para los ecosistemas canarios" in the catalogue of protected species of the Canary Islands. It is classed Vulnerable B2ac(iii,iv); D2 in the Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008).
More than half of the area where the species occurs is included in the protected areas Parque Natural de Las Nieves and Reserva Natural Especial de Guelguén. Seeds are stored in the germplasm bank of Jardín Botánico Canario Viera y Clavijo and Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos.
|Citation:||Santos Guerra, A. & Reyes Betancort, J.A. 2011. Echium pininana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T165250A5996251.Downloaded on 17 July 2018.|
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