Salvia herbanica 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Lamiales Lamiaceae

Scientific Name: Salvia herbanica A.Santos & M.Fernández
Common Name(s):
Spanish Conservilla Majorera

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,v); C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-03-13
Assessor(s): Scholz, S. & Santos Guerra, A.
Reviewer(s): Bilz, M. & Peraza Zurita, M.D.
Salvia herbanica is listed as Critically Endangered because its restricted and fragmented distribution, with an area of occupancy lower than 10 km². Total population consists of 212 individuals with less than 50 individuals in each subpopulation. There is a continuing decline in quality of habitat and number of individuals mainly due to predation by herbivores.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the mountains of southern-central Fuerteventura, where it grows between 250 and 450 m asl., distributed into ten known locations (Scholz and Santos Guerra 2004). Its area of occupancy is lower than 10 km². Its distribution has been reported to present high fragmentation (Gobierno de Canarias 2004).
Countries occurrence:
Spain (Canary Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:10
Number of Locations:10
Lower elevation limit (metres):250
Upper elevation limit (metres):450
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are ten known subpopulations with a total of 212 individuals (Scholz and Santos Guerra 2004). Of all the individuals counted, there are less than 50 that grow in totally inaccessible situations and can therefore grow and reproduce; among the rest, older individuals and individuals mutilated by herbivores predominate and they can hardly grow and flourish. There is also poor recruitment of juveniles as all seedlings born at the foot of a cliff disappear due to herbivores, so that the chances of recolonisation are zero in the current circumstances.

Negative trends have been observed for its population size over the last ten years (Gobierno de Canarias 2004).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:212Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It grows in sunny basalt cliffs, with a tendency to take refuge in inaccessible areas. In the past it was probably part of Lycia intricati-Euphorbietum balsamiferae associations, but nowadays it has almost disappeared from this area. Frequent companions include Kleinia neriifolia, Lycium intricatum, Launaea arborescens, and some therophytes.

A plant that is well adapted to dry conditions, resistant and with great longevity. There are individuals with numerous seeds. Pollination is accomplished by Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. In some specimens malformations were seen, possibly the effect of inbreeding. Percent of germination of seeds is low in general (5 - 10%) but may rise during heavy rain.

Its habitat has been reported to have suffered strong degradation (Gobierno de Canarias 2004).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is predation by domestic herbivores (goats and sheep) and wild ones (rabbits and possibly squirrels) (Scholz and Santos Guerra 2004). Parasitism of the seeds by Oxyaciura tibialis (Diptera: Tephritidae) poses a problem. Prolonged drought also affects it negatively and geological instability is an issue. 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is classed Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,v); C2a(i) on the Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008). It is included as species "En peligro de extinción" in the national catalogue of threatened species and in the catalogue of protected species of the Canary Islands.

Only six of the ten known populations are included in protected areas, five in the Monumento Natural de los Cuchillos de Vigán and SCI Pozo Negro and one in the Monumento Natural de Montaña Cardones (SCI). Seeds are stored in the germplasm banks of the botanic garden Jardín Botánico Viera y Clavijo and of the environmental department of the government of the Canary Islands (Viceconsejería de Medio Ambiente - Gobierno de Canarias).

Fences should protect the main subpopulations. More seeds should be stored in germplasm banks and the species should be object of ex situ cultivation in botanic gardens. Research about the biology, ecology and genetics of the species should be developed.

Citation: Scholz, S. & Santos Guerra, A. 2011. Salvia herbanica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T165159A5984123. . Downloaded on 22 January 2018.
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