|Scientific Name:||Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J.Koch|
|Taxonomic Notes:||There is a long standing debate regarding the nomenclature of this particular taxon. Fritillaria montana was named from Italy in 1832 while F. orientalis and F. tenella from the Caucasus in 1805 and 1808 and furthermore, F. degeniana from Serbia in 1906. Attempts were made to differentiate F. montana and F. orientalis in the mid 1930s in the former USSR (Tomović et al. 2007). Differences between F. orientalis and F. montana are given (Tomović et al. 2007).
The accepted name in France (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 2003-2010) and in Bosnia and Herzegovina is Fritillaria orientalis Adams.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Cuttelod, A. & Collett, L.|
|Contributor(s):||Alessandrini, A., Bazos, I., Bertolli, A., Delipetrou, P., Juillet, N., Peruzzi, L., Prosser, F., Santangelo, A., Soljan, D. & Stevanović, V.|
European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
EU 27 regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
This European endemic extends from northeastern France to the Balkan and is relatively widespread. It seems to have stable populations in Italy and France, but is less common in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to carry out an assessment population information for all the countries within its range would be needed which is not available here. There is furthermore taxonomic debate around this taxon and it is therefore assessed as Data Deficient. Information collected so far indicates that it could be of Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Fritillaria montana occurs in south and southeastern Europe, westwards to southeastern France (Kamari 1991).|
Its distribution pattern ranges from southeast France, Austria (Tirol) to Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro (doubtful but not unexpected), Serbia, Bulgaria, FYR Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Romania, and the European part of the Russian Federation (Tomović et al. 2007). All citation and records of F. orientalis and/or F. tenella in Europe refer to F. montana.
In Serbia, it has been reported in different regions: Banat (Mt Vršački breg, Deliblatska Sands; northeast Serbia: Đerdap gorge, Ram; Šumadija: Mt Rudnik; W. Serbia: Mt Ovčar, Užice, Mt Zlatibor; SW Serbia: Prijepolje; central Serbia: Raška; southeast Serbia: Mt Rudina Planina; Kosovo and Metochia: Gnjilane, Priština, Kosovska Mitrovica Mt Gubavac near Peć, Mt Šarplanina in the vicinity of the village Brod, Mt Ošljak (Tomović et al. 2007). It is recorded in 36 squares of 10x10 km, while its area of occupancy is several times less.
In Italy, it is found in most of the regions but not on the islands, with quite a large area of occupancy.
In north central Greece the species is found in the Prespes area (three to four locations), Boutsi Mt, Siniatsiko Mt, Vellia Mt, Vermion Mt (two locations), Vourinos Mt (two to three locations), Voras Mt (Kajmaktsalan). In northeastern Greece it is found west of Pilima village, Menoikion Mt, Orvilos Mt and also in the North Pindos range and the Katara Pass (this record needs confirmation). In Greece it has an extent of occurrence of c. 20,000 km² and it has an area of occupancy of at least 70–80 km² (based on a 2x2 km grid).
In Bosnia, there are records from the mountains Vlašić, Treskavica, Trebiševo polje, and in Herzegovina, it occurs on Mt. Velež, Porim near Rujište, around Gacko.
Native:Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; France (France (mainland)); Greece (Greece (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland)); Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia); Slovenia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In France, there is one locality with several hundreds of individuals, and it is apparently stable. In Italy the species is stable but severely fragmented. The plant is found at 14–20 locations in Greece, but there is no estimation of the population size or trend. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are rather restricted in Greece (within the limits of criterion B) but there are no data on population size or trends or threats which would determine whether the plant should be classified in one of the threat categories. Confirmed records of the species in Greece are since the 1940s, the 1970s and the 1980s but it was recently collected on Mitsikeli.|
In Serbia approximately 50% of the localities are checked in the field, the rest are herbarium data. The richest subpopulation is estimated to be less than 2,000 mature individuals.
There is no information available for the other countries in its range.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is found in different habitats ranging from scrub communities and rocky places in openings of deciduous and Fagus forest to limestone substrate up to 1,800 m asl. It is also reported to grow in montane and subalpine regions. It has been reported that this plant in particular can mix with various types of plant communities.|
In Greece the species is found on rocky slopes with scrub of Buxus and Juniperus or rocky places in openings of beech and deciduous oak forest, on limestone or ophiolithic substrate. It flowers in late April and May (Kamari 1991). In Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is found in subalpine grasslands.
In Serbia it inhabits various types of thermophilous (Carpino orientalis-Quercetum pubescentis. Ostryo-Carpinetum orientalis, Carpinetum orientalis, Quercetum pubescentis, Orno-Ostryetum), meso-thermophilous (Querco-Tilietum tomentosae; Orno-Quercetum petreae, Rusco-Carpinetum , Monspessulo-Coryletum colurnae, Quercetum pubescenti-cerris, Orno-Quercetum petreae serpentinicum), mesophilous beech forests (Fagetum montanum, Ostryo-Fagetum) and shrubs or sibljak vegetation (Syringo-Carpinetum orientalis), as well as xerophilous grasslands (Festuco duriusculae-Euphorbietum glabriflorae, Fritillario-Seslerietum rigidae, Teucrio-Artemisietum camphorata) on limestone, ophiolithic, siliceous and sandy soils.
|Use and Trade:||The plant is threatened by collection in Serbia, and possibly in France also. Bulb collection may be a threat in Greece as there is substantial internet trade which is not always licensed.|
|Major Threat(s):||The collection of the species or the bulb is a threat in at least Greece, France, and Serbia. Spreading urbanisation and road construction is furthermore affecting the species. Changes in native species dynamics as a result of changes in agricultural practices, transform the habitat and increase competition for F. montana. Conifer plantations is another cause of habitat loss.|
This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).
In France, it is protected at the national level. In Italy, collection is banned in some regions and it is partially included in Natura 2000 sites. In Greece, part of the population of the plant is included in Natura 2000 sites (e.g., GR1210001, GR1260004, GR1250005, GR1320002, GR1330001, GR1330002, GR2130006, GR2130008).
In Bosnia and Herzegovina it is Rare (Šilić 1996). The plant is categorised as Vulnerable for part of the range in Serbia. It is protected by law and a few subpopulations are situated in protected areas and Important Plant Areas.
It is not on the red lists of Croatia and Bulgaria.
It is recommended to collect population information for all of its range and to put harvesting controls in place. Further clarification of the taxonomy is also needed.
|Citation:||Bilz, M. 2011. Fritillaria montana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T165151A5983026.Downloaded on 26 February 2018.|
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