Genista benehoavensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Fabales Fabaceae

Scientific Name: Genista benehoavensis (Bolle) M.del Arco Aguilar
Common Name(s):
Spanish Retamón Palmero, Retamón
Convolvulus benehoavensis Bolle
Cytisus benehoavensis (Bolle) Svent.
Teline benehoavensis (Bolle ex Svent.) A.Santos

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-03-11
Assessor(s): Carqué Álamo, E., Bañares Baudet, A., Marrero Gómez, M.V. & Palomares Martínez, A.
Reviewer(s): Peraza Zurita, M.D. & Bilz, M.
Genista benehoavensis has been object of a recovery plan since 1988, when it was severely endangered, and its population has increased since. Regressive patterns in its habitat are being controlled through establishment of fences against herbivores, but degradation and predation occur as soon as the fencing is destroyed or predators manage to get in the fenced area. Although its total area of occupancy is 28 km², the species appears scattered and distributed into many small populations nuclei and the increasing population trends and current relatively wide distribution of the species could not occur without human intervention. Furthermore, due to the proximity of the scattered subpopulations, an impact on the distribution of the species, such as a fire, could destroy a huge amount of specimens. Therefore, the species is listed as Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This plant is endemic to the island of La Palma, the Canary Islands, Spain, where it occurs in the north of the island (Carqué Álamo et al. 2004). It is present in eight municipalities, comprising several population nuclei: Santa Cruz de La Palma (Pico de La Nieve); Puntallana (Barranco Hondo); San Andrés y Sauces (Barranco de Vizcaíno, Lomo Morisco, Fuente Juan Diego, La Mejorana y Rivero); Barlovento (northeast of Pico de la Cruz, Dormitorios Altos, Morro de la Cebolla, Barranco de Gallegos); Garafía (Barranco de Franceses, Los Andenes, foot of Pico Fuente Nueva, northeastern foot of Roque de los Muchachos, surroundings of Observatorio Astrofisico, Lomo de la Ciudad, Barrancos de Izcagua, Briesta, Dornajito and Las Grajas); Puntagorda (northern foor of Roque Chico, firewall Reventón, Llano de las Ánimas and Barranco de Garome); Tijarafe (Barranco de Garorme, western foot of Roque Palmero) and El Paso (Espigón Roque de los Muchachos, Barranco del Diablo) (Á. Palomares pers. comm. 2011). Its total area of occupancy is 28 km², comprising natural and introduced subpopulations.
Countries occurrence:
Spain (Canary Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:15-17
Lower elevation limit (metres):1760
Upper elevation limit (metres):2420
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Its populations are relatively well structured. Proportion of young individuals exceeds 50%.

In 1999, 363 individuals were recorded. Due to the establishment of fences and reinforcement measures, the population size experienced a rapid increase, and in 2004, 3,000 mature individuals were counted. In 2006-2007 a total population of more than 7,000 individuals is recorded. Reintroduction and protection measures seem to have lead to increasing population trends (Gobierno de Canarias 2009).

Its population has been growing since the implementation of the recovery plan in 1988, due to reintroduction measures and through natural regeneration. Current population is 9,815 individuals, from which 5,639 are mature individuals (Á. Palomares pers. comm. 2011). The species presents a scattered distribution. It is frequently found distributed in small groups which do not comprise a viable population and the subpopulations counting more than 250 individuals are not common and are reintroduced: surroundings of Morro de la Cebolla, surroundings of Roque de los Muchachos, Parcela Quemada and Izcagua Dornajito.
Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:5639
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This large shrub is characteristic of the northern edges of La Caldera de Taburiente, appearing associated to high mountain communities Telino benehoavensis-Adenocarpetum spartioidis (Carqué Álamo et al. 2004). It prefers sunny sites, with low slope, within communities dominated by Adenocarpus viscosus var. spartioides. It can also be found in steep slopes, along with rupicolous species as Tolpis calderae and Greenovia diplocycla.

It is a hermaphrodite species. Only 28% of the seeds reach maturity and present appropriate fertility.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Predation by goats, rabbits and the introduced game species Ammotragus lervia, has been described as the main threat to this species in the past (Carqué Álamo et al. 2004). This impact has been reported to be currently moderately controlled by the establishment of fences. Other threats are natural competition, fires, strong winds and erosion.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is classed as Endangered B2ab(iii) on the Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008) and as species "de interés para los ecosistemas canarios" in the catalogue of protected species of  the Canary Islands.

It occurs within the protected areas Parque Nacional Caldera de Taburiente (SCI), Parque Natural de las Nieves (SCI) and SCIs of Barlovento, Garafía, El Paso and Tijarafe (Carqué Álamo et al. 2004). A recovery programme has been developed in Parque Nacional Cadera de Taburiente, which includes population monitoring, establishment of fences, reinforcement measures and benign introduction, introduced herbivorous species control and awareness plans.

Seeds are stored in the germplasm banks E.T.S. de Ingenieros Agrónomos and Jardín Canario Viera y Clavijo.

Plant material from every subpopulation should be stored in germplasm banks. Introduced populations have to be kept in place and enforced.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: An errata assessment was created to address minor typographical issues, and to add the original combination and synonyms.

Citation: Carqué Álamo, E., Bañares Baudet, A., Marrero Gómez, M.V. & Palomares Martínez, A. 2011. Genista benehoavensis (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T165129A116295478. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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