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Promethichthys prometheus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Gempylidae

Scientific Name: Promethichthys prometheus (Cuvier, 1832)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Roudi Escolar, Bermuda Catfish, Conejo, Conejo, Night Serpent, Promethean Escolar, Rabbitfish, Rabbit-fish, Rabbit Fish, Roudi, Roudi Escolar, Sarpon, Single-line Gemfish, Snake Mackerel
French Escolier Clair
Spanish Escolar Prometeo, Pez Conejo, Tajalí de Canto
Synonym(s):
Gempylus prometheus Cuvier, 1832
Prometheus atlanticus Lowe, 1838
Promethichthys pacificus Seale, 1906
Promethichthys solandri Jordan, Evermann, and Tanaka, 1927
Thyrsites ballieui Sauvage, 1882

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2012-08-22
Assessor(s): Collette, B.B., Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Pina Amargos, F., Williams, J.T., Grijalba Bendeck, L. & Curtis, M.
Reviewer(s): Carpenter, K.E., Polidoro, B. & Soto, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Comeros-Raynal, M.
Justification:
Promethichthys prometheus is oceanodromous and is widespread throughout the Eastern Central Atlantic, along the entire African slope, off Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde and on underwater rises. It can also be found in the Western Central Atlantic where it is known from the eastern Atlantic coast of the USA, off Bermuda, in the Caribbean Sea and off Suriname. Promethichthys prometheus is common in museum collections. There is no fishery for Promethichthys prometheus but it is a gamefish in parts of its range. It is rarely collected in bottom trawls. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Promethichthys prometheusIts distribution overlaps with marine reserves in parts of its range. However, it is not known if protection from reserves encompasses the deep water habitats of Promethichthys prometheus. Therefore, Promethichthys prometheus is listed as Least Concern. 






Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Promethichthys prometheus occurs in tropical and warm temperate waters of all oceans, but is absent from the eastern Pacific Ocean with the exception of Sala y Gomez Ridge (Nakamura and Parin 1993). Promethichthys prometheus occurs along the entire African slope, off Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde and on underwater rises (Parin in press). Promethichthys prometheus is found between 100-800 m in depth (Schneider 1990). 

Countries occurrence:
Native:
American Samoa; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Chile; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Disputed Territory (Spratly Is.); Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Equatorial Guinea; Fiji; France (France (mainland)); French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Liberia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island)); Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Norfolk Island; Oman; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Portugal (mainland), Selvagens); Puerto Rico; Réunion; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Solomon Islands; Somalia; Spain (Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Suriname; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – western central; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):800
Upper depth limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Promethichthys prometheus is common in museum records (190 lots) and can be locally abundant (Fishnet 2 Portal, www.fishnet2.org, 2013-03-07).


Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Promethichthys prometheus is an oceanodromous, benthopelagic species (Riede 2004) found over continental slope, around islands and submarine rises (Nakamura and Parin 1993) at 100 to 800 m (Schneider 1990). It is commonly found at depths between 300 and 400 m. Promethichthys prometheus migrates to midwater at night (Nakamura and Parin 1993). The maximum recorded standard length (SL) is 100 cm (Nakamura and Parin 1993). The diet consists of fishes, cephalopods and crustaceans (Nakamura and Parin 1993). It has a common standard length is 40.0 cm male/unsexed (Nakamura 1984, Cervigón et al. 1992). This species is likely to spawn throughout the year in warmer seas (Nakamura and Parin 1993).
Systems:Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no special fishery for Promethichthys prometheus (Parin in press), and it is rarely caught in bottom trawls (Bianchi et al. 1999). Promethichthys prometheus is a gamefish in parts of its range. It is utilized by subsistence fisheries, usually used as bait (Allen and Steene 1988, Robins et al. 1991, Coppola et al. 1994).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for Promethichthys prometheus.



Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Promethichthys prometheus. Its distribution overlaps with marine reserves in parts of its range. However, it is not known if protection from reserves encompasses the deep water habitats of Promethichthys prometheus.



Citation: Collette, B.B., Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Pina Amargos, F., Williams, J.T., Grijalba Bendeck, L. & Curtis, M. 2015. Promethichthys prometheus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T16509297A16510892. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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