|Scientific Name:||Galanthus reginae-olgae|
Galanthus reginae-olgae is closely related to G. nivalis, and for many years was considered to be a subspecies of the latter. Both species have applanate (flat) vernation, narrow linear leaves, and a single green mark at the apex of each inner perianth segment, which is often the same shape. Despite the similarities between these two species there are obvious differences, including flowering time, leaf length (at flowering), and leaf colour. Galanthus reginae-olgae is predominantly autumn- to early winter-flowering, whereas G. nivalis is late winter- to early spring-flowering; these differences persist in cultivation. The leaves of G. reginae-olgae are either absent at the onset of flowering or are only about 2–3 cm long (excluding G. reginae-olgae subsp. vernalis: see below), in contrast to those of G. nivalis which are always several centimetres long at flowering time. The upper leaf surface of G. reginae-olgae has a conspicuous glaucous (greyish to grey) stripe running down the middle of the leaf. There is sometimes a greyish stripe on the leaf of G. nivalis, but it is never as obvious as that of G. reginae-olgae and is often absent. The upper leaf surface of G. reginae-olgae is usually a darker green than G. nivalis, which makes the grey median stripe more pronounced. The under surface of the leaf is usually lighter in colour (whitish grey) than G. nivalis (pale grey). Galanthus reginae-olgae is divided into two subspecies: ssp. reginae-olgae and ssp. vernalis. These two subspecies are separated on flowering time, and leaf length at the onset of flowering (Davis 1999, 2001).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Trias Blasi, A. & Bilz, M.|
|Contributor/s:||Bazos, I., Moat, J. & Gage, E.|
European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU) B2ab(iii,v)
EU 27 regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU) B2ab(iii,v)
Galanthus reginae-olgae has an area of occupancy of 1,008 km²; populations are usually fragmented and rather small (e.g. many are much less than 2 km²), and confined to specific niches. For those populations occurring near streams, abstraction or shifts in rainfall patterns (including climate change) would significantly influence population health and survival of individuals. In some locations housing and tourist infrastructure is influencing population health and survival; forest clearance will also negatively influence survival. For these reasons G. reginae-olgae is assessed as Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||Galanthus reginae-olgae is endemic to Greece, the northwestern and western Balkan Peninsula and Sicily (Davis 1999, 2001). The countries of occurence are: Montenegro, Greece and Italy (Sicily). In Greece, it occurs from the northern Pindos to southern and southwestern Peloponnisos and on Kerkiras (Corfu). There is a very good possibility that this species also occurs in Albania (no current records). The area of occupancy is 1,008 km².|
Native:Greece (Greece (mainland)); Italy (Sicilia); Montenegro
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
In Greece, the species is rare throughout its range but only under threat on the island Kerkira (Phitos et al. 1995).
In Sicily, it is very localised. Areas of suitable habitat suggest that the area of occupancy for this species could be greater than currently recorded, but this is not supported by field observations.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Galanthus reginae-olgae is found in a variety of habitats, such as stunted woodland, deciduous woodland, amongst rocks and scrub, near streams on sloping ground, and in river valleys and gorges. It is most abundant at higher altitudes, around 1,000 m. Like other species from southern Europe, most of these habitats provide suitable micro-environments in areas otherwise unsuitable for a predominately woodland plant. This species seems to prefers limestone substrate (Phitos et al. 1995; Davis, 1999). The populations in Sicily are found on rocky outcrops in an oak forest.
|Major Threat(s):||In Greece, the species is not threatened apart from the population on Kerkira that is under threat from the expansion of tourism. It is also safe from being grazed as it contains alkaloids, which makes animals dislike them (Phitos et al. 1995). Forest clearance and water abstraction would influence populations in those areas where it occurs in proximity to rivers and streams. Like other Galanthus, this species is susceptible to climate change.|
|Conservation Actions:||All Galanthus spp. are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Ex situ conservation is underway in the Experimental Garden of the Patras Botanical Institute and no other measures are needed at the present time (Phitos et al. 1995).|
|Citation:||Davis, A. 2011. Galanthus reginae-olgae. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 May 2013.|
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