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Galanthus plicatus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA LILIOPSIDA LILIALES AMARYLLIDACEAE

Scientific Name: Galanthus plicatus
Species Authority: M.Bieb.
Taxonomic Notes: Galanthus plicatus is an easily identified snowdrop because the leaves are folded sharply downwards towards the underside of the leaf. When in bud the margins are folded flat against the lower surface of the leaf. There are two subspecies: ssp. plicatus and ssp. byzantinus. The former occurs throughout the natural range of the species, and has a single mark on each inner perianth segment; the latter is confined to the extreme part of northwest Turkey and has two marks on each inner perianth segment. This snowdrop is related to G. nivalis and G. reginae-olgae but is rarely confused with these species and is genetically distinct (Davis 1999, 2001; Lledo et al. 2004; Larsen et al. 2010).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-02-08
Assessor(s): Davis, A.
Reviewer(s): Trias Blasi, A. & Bilz, M.
Contributor(s): Gage, E., Melnyk, V., Moat, J. & Zubov, D.
Justification:

Galanthus plicatus has a large extent of occurrence (436,194 km²) and area of occupancy (4,608 km²), and at the present time this species falls within the Least Concern category. However, this species mainly depends on forest cover for survival, and is thus very susceptible to any land-use change. Some populations are severely fragmented. Further research on population size, density and health may show that this species needs to be placed in a threatened category. The populations in Ukraine, Romania, and Moldova require special conservation attention.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found around the Black Sea in Asiatic Turkey, Romania, Moldova, the Ukraine and the Russian Federation. One of the main sites is in the Crimean mountains, from Balaclava to Koktebel. In lowland Ukraine, it is found at only one locality in Cholodnij Jar in the Cherkasy region. There is one locality in Moldova and two localities in Romania. In Moldova, Galanthus plicatus grows near the village of Capadia in Cahul county; in Romania, it grows near the village Babadey in the Tulcea region in Dobrogea and near Babadag. In the Russian Federation, three localities of Galanthus plicatus have been discovered in the Novorosijsk region, northwestern Caucasus. In Turkey this species is mostly confined to the northwest part of Turkey (in Asia).
Countries:
Native:
Moldova; Romania; Russian Federation (East European Russia); Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia); Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part))
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In Ukraine, the population trend is stable in the Crimean mountains but declining in the lowlands. The size of the Crimean population reaches millions of individuals and the density of the Crimean population is 350-750 individuals/m². One population in lowland Ukraine occupies 6 km² and the density of the population reaches 170-750 individuals/m². Anthropogenic influence such as cutting of the forest is resulting in declines of the size and density of populations.

The single Moldavian population occupies an area of about 1 ha. The density of this population is 1-23 flowering specimens/m².

Populations in Turkey can be small (less than 1 km²) or much larger (1 km² to 11 km², or perhaps greater).

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Occurs in or at the margins of mixed deciduous forests (Fagus silvatica, Quercus sp., Tilia argentea, T. platyphylla, Carpinus betulus, Sorbus tormentalis, Ulmus sp., etc.) and coniferous forest (Juniperus altari, Abies sp.). Found on calcareous and acidic soils; often rich and leafy soils, sometimes sandy, but also occurring on heavier (clay) soils. Often on sloping ground, and sometimes near streams and small rivers. It occurs from 80 to 1,350 m, but most frequently at 1,000 to 1,350 m.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Galanthus plicatus is cultivated for the horticultural trade but also collected from the wild (no figures available). There is no evidence of wild-scale collection in Turkey.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the Ukraine, and other countries, logging and cutting of the forest habitat as well as collection of plants for horticulture are the main threats. It is assumed to be a climate-sensitive species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

All Galanthus species are included under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Galanthus plicatus is included in the new Red Data Book of the Ukraine (2009) as Vulnerable, in the Red Data Book of Moldova (2002) as Vulnerable, and in the Red List of Romania as Vulnerable. the species is under protection in Jaltinskij, Krimskij, Karadazkij and Mis Martjan reserves, in Fiolent, Aja, Bajdarskij zakaznik, Velikij Kanjon Krimu, Aju-Dag, Kubalacz, Chapchalskij state zakazniks in Crimean peninsula, in Bilosniznij zakaznik and in the state nature monument Cholodnij Jar in the Cherkasy region in Ukraine. The Moldavian population is included in the landscape reserve Codrii Tigheci.

Populations near large human settlements in Turkey, e.g. near Istanbul, could be under threat in the near future. Other populations in areas of low human population density are probably stable.

Citation: Davis, A. 2013. Galanthus plicatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.
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