|Scientific Name:||Uromastyx aegyptia|
|Species Authority:||(Forskål, 1775)|
Lacerta aegyptia Forskål, 1775
|Taxonomic Notes:||Due to low levels of genetic differentiation between members of the Uromastyx aegyptia species group (considered to include U. aegyptia, U. leptieni, U. microlepis and U. occidentalis), Wilms et al. (2007) recognize U. aegyptia as a single species with three subspecies: U. a. aegyptia, U. a. leptieni and U. a. microlepis.
The relationship of U. occidentalis, which was not included in genetic analysis, to U. aegyptia remains in need of clarification, however Wilms et al. (2007) continue to recognize it as a full species due to its geographical separation from the remaining U. aegyptia-group taxa.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2abcd+4abcd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Wilms, T., Eid, E.K.A., Al Johany, A.M.H., Amr, Z.S.S., Els, J., Baha El Din, S., Disi, A.M., Sharifi, M., Papenfuss, T., Shafiei Bafti, S. & Werner, Y.L.|
|Reviewer/s:||Cox, N.A. & Bowles, P.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable as there has been a suspected population decline of over 30% over the past 15 years (3 generations) and this is expected to continue into the future. The decline may be close to meeting the decline rate of 50% over three generations and population declines need to be monitored.
|Range Description:||This species ranges from Egypt (east of the Nile), eastwards into the southern half of Israel, south and northeastern Jordan, southern Syria, Iraq and Iran (currently known only from a historical record from the mainland, which needs confirmation, and a population on Sirri Island and Hengman Island (Anderson 1999, T. Papenfuss pers. comm. September 2008) in the Persian Gulf; the species may occur along the Gulf coast), and southwards into the Arabian Peninsula. The nominate subspecies has an eastern range margin east of Wadi Araba in Jordan and Wadi Sawawin in extreme northwestern Saudi Arabia (Wilms et al. 2007). U. a. microlepis is widespread in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Kuwait, while U. a. leptieni is found in Oman's Hajar al-Gharbi Mountains and the northeastern United Arab Emirates (Wilms et al. 2007). It can occur up to 1,500 m asl on Sinai.|
Native:Egypt; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Syrian Arab Republic; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Its occurrence is very patchy and this is not easily explained by available habitat. This species is widespread but declining in parts of Jordan. It is locally common on the Arabian Peninsula (T. Papenfuss pers. comm. September 2008). It is generally uncommon and declining throughout its range in Egypt. There are possibly under 100 adults on Hengman Island, Iran (T. Papenfuss pers. comm. September 2008). Overall, the species is believed to be in decline due to habitat loss and over-harvesting.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in open, flat, gravelly, stony and rocky areas, and it is infrequently seen in sandy areas. The species lives in loose colonies that can be found close to their burrows. Animals forage on low vegetation close to their burrows. It lays 7-17 (occasionally up to 23) eggs. It is not present in agricultural land.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species has been regularly reported in the international pet and medicinal trade. Some of this trade is illegal. There is severe collection pressure on the species. The species is locally used for food and medicinal purposes (exported to Malaysia). Its habitat is also being lost due to over-grazing, human settlement, large-scale agricultural expansion, land reclamation, solid waste dumping and off-road vehicles. In Egypt large portions of its range have been lost to quarrying for gravel and building material, especially in the Eastern Desert. Its populations are very fragmented throughout its wide range. On the Arabian Peninsula, the species is still locally common in some places, especially protected areas.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. Egypt has banned the export of this species, however the illegal export of animals from this country has continued. In Jordan it is protected under Appendix I of the Hunting Law. It occurs in several protected areas. The establishment of protected areas for important localities throughout the species range should be established. Awareness raising and community conservation measures should be developed for the conservation of this species. Further research into captive-propagation of this species is being undertaken to reduce the collection pressure on wild populations.|
|Citation:||Wilms, T., Eid, E.K.A., Al Johany, A.M.H., Amr, Z.S.S., Els, J., Baha El Din, S., Disi, A.M., Sharifi, M., Papenfuss, T., Shafiei Bafti, S. & Werner, Y.L. 2012. Uromastyx aegyptia. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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