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Holocentrus adscensionis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Beryciformes Holocentridae

Scientific Name: Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck, 1765)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Squirrelfish, Cook, Hardback Soldier, Longjaw Squirrelfish
French Marignon Coq
Spanish Candil Gallito, Carajuelo
Synonym(s):
Amphiprion matejuelo Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801
Bodianus pentacanthus Bloch [M. E.] 1790
Holocentrum furcatum Günther [A.] 1859
Holocentrum longipinne Cuvier [G.] 1829
Holocentrum macropus Günther [A.] 1859
Holocentrum matejuelo Poey [F.] 1860
Holocentrum productum Poey [F.] 1868
Holocentrum sanctipauli Günther [A.] 1880
Holocentrus rostratus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854
Holocentrus sogo Bloch [M. E.] 1790
Holocentrus striatus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854
Perca adscensionis Osbeck, 1765
Perca holocentrus Euphrasen [B. A.] 1795
Sargocentron furcatum (Günther 1859)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2013-01-29
Assessor(s): Moore, J., Polanco Fernandez, A., Russell, B. & McEachran, J.D.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Defex, T.
Justification:
Holocentrus adscensionis is widely distributed, common and abundant where it occurs on inshore and offshore reefs. There are no known major threats, therefore, it is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Holocentrus adscensionis is distributed across the Atlantic Ocean. In the eastern Atlantic it is known from St. Helena Island, Ascension Island, the Canary Islands, the Cape Verde Islands, Sao Tome and Principe Islands, and along West Africa from Gabon to Angola (Greenfield ECA FAO Guide in prep, V. Monteiro pers. comm. 2013). In the western Atlantic it is known from Virginia south along the U.S. coast, Bermuda, the Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (Zarco-Perello et al. 2014), and along South America to Santos, Brazil including Trinidade Island (Greenfield 2002). It is rarely reported off New York (Briggs and Waldman 2002). Its depth range is 0-180 m, but is most commonly found between 8-30 m (Wyatt 1983, Smith 1997).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil (Trindade); Cameroon; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Equatorial Guinea; French Guiana; Gabon; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Morocco; Namibia (Namibia (main part)); Nicaragua; Nigeria; Panama; Portugal (Madeira); Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico (main island)); Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Ascension, Saint Helena (main island)); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe (Principe, Sâo Tomé); Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Spain (Canary Is.); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuela (mainland)); Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – eastern central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):240
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Holocentrus adscensionis seems to be relatively common within its habitat. It is considered to be "very common" on the coast of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, in natural as well as artificial reefs (Shinozaki-Mendes et al. 2007). It was the most abundant species in a reef survey conducted in the Guarapari Islands off southeastern Brazil (Floeter et al. 2007) and is abundant off Parai­ba State in north-eastern Brazil (Honorio et al. 2010). It is a common species in inshore reef zones (FAO ECA guide in prep by D.W. Greenfield). It is one of the most abundant mobile invertebrate feeders off Sao Tome (Floeter et al. 2006). A genetics study observed significant population partitions in H. adscensionis between the eastern, central and western Atlantic, and between Brazil and the Caribbean in the western Atlantic (Bowen et al. 2006).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Holocentrus adscensionis inhabits shallow coral reefs and offshore deep waters to 180 m depth, but is most common at inshore reefs. It is highly associated with branching fire-corals on the Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil (Coni et al. 2012). It the Gulf of Mexico, it occurs on Oculina reefs between 70-100 m depth (Reed 2006). It is a demersal, nocturnal species that feeds on crabs, shrimps, and other small crustaceans over sand and grass beds. During the day it hides in crevices within reef structure. Juveniles generally congregate in schools, whilst adults tend to be more isolated within well established territories (Shinozaki-Mendes et al. 2007). Its size ranges from 34.5 cm SL to 60.8 cm TL (FAO ECA guide in prep by DW Greenfield). Eggs and larvae of the Holocentridae family are pelagic (Heemstra and Heemstra 2004). In a study conducted off Pernambuco, Brazil, size at first maturity was 14.6 cm FL, females were ripe October-March, fecundity ranged from 56274 to 249863 oocytes, and they were characterized as batch spawners (Shinozaki-Mendes et al. 2007). It has a pelagic juvenile phase of about 71 days (Bowen et al. 2006). Spawning occurs all year round in warm regions, but only during summer in colder waters of higher latitudes (Shinozaki-Mendes et al. 2007).
Systems:Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Holocentrus adscensionis has a relatively low commercial value, but is often used in aquariums (Shinozaki-Mendes et al. 2007). It is caught incidentally throughout its range. Off Venezuela and northeast Brazil, it is frequently caught by artisanal boats fishing with traps, hand lines and gillnets and marketed fresh (Carpenter 2002, Shinozaki-Mendes et al. 2007). One study of the reef fish fauna of Trinidade Island found that signs of overfishing were evident in the area (Pinheiro et al. 2011). It is not commercially exploited off Nigeria (J. Williams pers. comm. 2013).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Though this species is captured in some small-scale fisheries, this is not considered a major threat to its global population.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place.

Citation: Moore, J., Polanco Fernandez, A., Russell, B. & McEachran, J.D. 2015. Holocentrus adscensionis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T16442472A16509817. . Downloaded on 19 June 2018.
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