Parnassia palustris 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Celastrales Celastraceae

Scientific Name: Parnassia palustris L.
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Grass-of-Parnassus, Bog Star, Marsh Parnassia
French Parnassie des Marais

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2013-03-05
Assessor(s): Lansdown, R.V.
Reviewer(s): Smith, K.
Contributor(s): Stanley, C., Flanagan, D., Rhazi, M., Grillas, P., Bilz, M. & Rhazi, L.
This species is classed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations in parts of its range and therefore the risk of the species going extinct in Europe is quite low. However, it is of concern that the species is classed as threatened on various national red lists and local conservation measures are required.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Parnassia palustris is a circumboreal species. Its world distribution encompasses North America, northern and central Asia, North Africa and all of Europe, where it is rare in the south.
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, Newfoundland I, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shanxi, Xinjiang); Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia); Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom; United States (Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


This species is widespread and abundant throughout its known range. There is no detailed information available on population size.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a perennial herbaceous plant (Hemicryptophyte) that inhabits swamps, mires, fens, peatlands, dune-slacks and short grassland (Preston et al. 2002, Castroviejo et al. 1997). Flowering occurs in summer and autumn (July-October).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Parnassia palustris is a medicinal plant that is used to treat stomatitis in the form of a mouthwash, to heal wounds, or as an eye lotion (Plants For A Future 2012).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The drainage of wetlands for agricultural purposes is the main threat for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Parnassia palustris is included on the following national red lists:
  • Critically Endangered in Luxembourg (Colling 2005)
  • Endangered in Belgium (Van Landuyt et al. 2006) and the Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka 2000)
  • Vulnerable in Hungary (Király 2007), Germany (category 3 - Ludwig and Schnittler 1996) and the Netherlands (Meijden 2000)
  • Least Concern in Denmark (NERI 2007), Norway (Artsdatabanken 2010), Switzerland (Moser et al. 2002) and the United Kingdom (Cheffings and Farrell 2005)
This species is protected in France: departmental (Moselle, Meuse, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Landes, Gironde) and regional protection (Alsace, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Basse-Normandie, Centre, Picardie, Pays-de-la-Loire) (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 2003-2012).

Citation: Lansdown, R.V. 2014. Parnassia palustris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T164421A42399385. . Downloaded on 21 July 2018.
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