Arundo donax 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Poales Poaceae

Scientific Name: Arundo donax L.
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Giant Reed
French Canne de Provence
Aira bengalensis (Retz.) J.F.Gmel.
Amphidonax bengalensis (Retz.) Steud.
Amphidonax bengalensis Roxb. ex Nees
Amphidonax bifaria (Retz.) Steud.
Arundo bambusifolia Hook.f.
Arundo coleotricha var. versicolor (Mill.) Stokes
Arundo donax var. lanceolata Döll
Arundo donax var. variegata E.Vilm.
Arundo glauca Bubani
Arundo latifolia Salisb.
Arundo longifolia Salisb. ex Hook.f.
Arundo scriptoria L.
Arundo scriptoria L.
Arundo aegyptia Delile
Arundo aegyptiaca E.Vilm.
Arundo bengalensis Retz.
Arundo bifaria Retz.
Arundo coleotricha (Hack.) Honda
Arundo coleotricha var. barbigera Honda
Arundo donax f. versicolor (Mill.) Beetle
Arundo donax var. angustifolia Döll
Arundo donax var. barbigera (Honda) Ohwi
Arundo donax var. coleotricha Hack.
Arundo donax var. versicolor (Mill.) Kunth
Arundo donax var. versicolor (Mill.) Stokes
Arundo hellenica Danin, Raus & H.Scholz
Arundo sativa Lam.
Arundo triflora Roxb.
Arundo versicolor Mill.
Cynodon donax (L.) Raspail
Donax arundinaceus P. Beauv.
Donax sativa (Lam.) C.Presl
Donax arundinaceus P.Beauv.
Donax bengalensis (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Donax bifarius (Retz.) Spreng.
Donax donax (L.) Asch. & Graebn.
Donax sativa (Lam.) J. Presl
Donax sativus C.Presl
Donax versicolor (Mill.) P.Beauv.
Scolochloa arundinacea (P.Beauv.) Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
Scolochloa donax (L.) Gaudin
Taxonomic Notes: It is commonly known as Narhal/ Arundo grass/ giant reed/Giant cane/ Carrizo/ Spanish cane, wild cane. A wild/ cultivated perennial, 2-8 meters tall grass with smooth and fibrous root stock.Culms are 2-4 cms in dia and commonly branched in 2nd yr, of growth. Leaves linear, with tapering ends and sheathing at the base.. flowers are arranged in terminal plumose panicle of spikes. Involucral glumes are glabrous.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-05-02
Assessor(s): Lansdown, R.V.
Reviewer(s): García, N. & Defex, T.
Contributor(s): Patzelt, A., Knees, S.G., Ali, M.M., Grillas, P., Petrović, D., Ghrabi, Z., Alegro, A., Neale, S. & Williams, L.

This species is assessed as Least Concern because it is widespread and does not face any major threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

According to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), this species is native only to a fairly narrow area bounded by Cyprus, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan in the west, the Gulf States in the south and Japan south to Myanmar in the east. The same source describes it as occurring as an introduction from the Atlantic Ocean island groups and the Iberian Peninsula throughout the Mediterranean south through Africa to South Africa, some of the Indian Ocean island groups, Australia, New Zealand and some Pacific Ocean island groups, as well as North and Central America.

Countries occurrence:
Bangladesh; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Myanmar; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Turkmenistan; Yemen (North Yemen)
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia); Azerbaijan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Botswana; Brazil; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; China; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai - Native); El Salvador; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is.); Guam; Guatemala; Haiti; Indonesia; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kiribati; Libya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Namibia (Namibia (main part)); Nauru; Nepal; New Caledonia; New Zealand (North Is., South Is.); Nicaragua; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Pakistan; Palau; Peru; Philippines; Portugal (Azores, Madeira); Samoa; Seychelles (Aldabra, Seychelles (main island group)); Somalia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal); Spain (Canary Is.); Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United States (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaiian Is., Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia); Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1450
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no information on trends in the native populations of this species. It is very widely introduced and introduction continues, therefore overall the population is probably increasing.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species will occur on light sandy soils and loams to and heavy clay soils and will tolerate acid, neutral and basic or even highly alkaline soils. It is intolerant of shade and typically grows in moist places such as ditches, streams, and riverbanks, growing best in well drained soils where abundant moisture is available. It will generally survive where planted, even at high altitudes and drier habitats, however under these conditions it may remain stunted.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The leaves are considered to have antibiotic properties and a paste may be applied externally in cutaneous affections. The root is considered to be diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient and galactofuge. An infusion is said to stimulate menstrual discharge and diminish milk flow. A paste of the root is applied to the forehead to treat headaches. Isolated alkaloids have been experimentally shown to raise the blood pressure and contract the intestine and uterus. The rhizome or rootstock is used in the treatment of dropsy. Boiled in wine with honey, the root or rhizome has been used for treating cancer. The plant contains the alkaloid gramine which is said to be a vasopressor, raising the blood pressure in dogs after small doses, causing a fall in larger doses. The stems have been used as splints for broken limbs. Other uses include basketry, biomass, broom, dye, hedge, as a musical instrument, paper; pipes, plant support, soil stabilization, thatching, weaving and windbreak.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

There are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

There are no conservation measures in place and none needed.

Citation: Lansdown, R.V. 2013. Arundo donax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T164340A1043245. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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