Caranx ruber 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Carangidae

Scientific Name: Caranx ruber (Bloch, 1793)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Bar Jack
Carangoides ruber (Bloch, 1793)
Scomber ruber Bloch, 1793
Taxonomic Source(s): Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.). 2014. Catalog of Fishes. Updated 31 October 2014. Available at: (Accessed: 31 October 2014).
Taxonomic Notes: The genus of this species was recently changed from Carangoides to Caranx (B. Smith-Vaniz pers. comm. 2012, Page et al. 2012).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2012-08-20
Assessor(s): Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Williams, J.T., Pina Amargos, F., Curtis, M. & Brown, J.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A.
Contributor(s): Sylla, M., Nunoo, F., Camara, K., Carpenter, K.E., Djiman, R. & Sagna, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Comeros-Raynal, M., Polidoro, B. & Strongin, K.
This pelagic species is widely distributed and abundant where it occurs in shallow, clear waters around coastal reefs. It is targeted by minor commercial fisheries in the Caribbean, but this is not expected to impact its population on a global level. Therefore it is assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Caranx ruber is widely distributed in the western Atlantic from New Jersey south along the U.S. coast, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (Smith-Vaniz 2002). It has also been recorded from Trinidade Island (Simon et al. 2013). Records from Ascension and St. Helena Island are likely vagrants (Edwards 1993), however, Wirtz et al. (2014) reports it as a resident of Ascension Island.
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil (Trindade); Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Ascension); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):100
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Caranx ruber is well represented in museum collections and can be locally abundant (Fishnet 2 Portal, accessed 19 July 2012). This species is the most abundant Caranx (Carangoides) species in the West Indies (Smith-Vaniz 2002). In Jamaica, this species comprises the bulk of the jack commercial catches. It is abundant in surveys and in the fishery. In the eastern coast of northeast Brazil, this species was found to be uncommon shallow over-shelf deep reefs and shelf-edge deep reefs from 5-40 m (Feitoza et al. 2005).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits shallow, clear waters around coastal reefs. It occurs mostly in small to large schools and is occasionally solitary. Juveniles are associated with Sargassum seaward rafts. Prey items include fish, some shrimp, and other invertebrates. Feeding habits vary according to growth and season, juveniles feed on zooplankton and adults are piscivores (after 30 cm fork length (FL)). Spawning probably occurs offshore from February to August. It exhibits pair courtship in schools exceeding 1,000 fish, primarily during the full moon and waning moon periods between February and October (Graham and Castellanos 2005). In Cuba, there are two main peaks in reproduction: March-April and July-August. It can attain a maximum size in excess of 50 cm total length (TL) and is common to 40 cm FL (Smith-Vaniz 2002).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is a component of artisanal fisheries and is also fairly sought after by anglers (Smith-Vaniz 2002). There is an increasing trend in catch landings for the Bar Jack, with zero catch reported from 1950-1998, a peak in landings at 34 tonnes in 2001 from Puerto Rico, followed by fluctuating catch landings reported from the U.S. and Puerto Rico. In U.S. waters, it is a small component of commercial carangid fisheries. There have been reported declines from Puerto Rico since the early 2000's. It is the most common jack harvested in Cuba (F. Pina-Amargos pers. comm. 2012) and is the main target of the Jack fishery; landings range from 300 to 560 tonnes between 1959 to 1997 (Claro et al. 2001). There are no reported catch landings for the Bar Jack in the eastern central Atlantic.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no indications at present time of global population declines from harvesting, but there are records of landings declines in parts of its range. It is potentially vulnerable to regional overfishing due to net fisheries.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this fish.

Citation: Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Williams, J.T., Pina Amargos, F., Curtis, M. & Brown, J. 2015. Caranx ruber. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T16431737A16509637. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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