Eleocharis geniculata 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Cyperales Cyperaceae

Scientific Name: Eleocharis geniculata
Species Authority: (L.) Roem. & Schult.
Common Name(s):
English Canada Spikesedge, Spike Rush
Eleocharis caribaea (Rottb.) S.F. Blake
Scirpus caribaeus Rottb.
Scirpus geniculatus L.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2010-11-08
Assessor(s): Kumar, B.
Reviewer(s): Sadasivaiah, B., Bhat, G.K., Rao, M.L.V., Dahanukar, N. & García, N.
Contributor(s): Molur, S., Knees, S.G. & Patzelt, A.
Eleocharis geniculata is a widespread species and it is also common throughout its range. Even though the species is used in medicine it does not pose a threat to the species. Since there are no known threats to the species it is Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2013 Least Concern (LC)
2013 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Eleocharis geniculata has a cosmopolitan tropical and subtropical distribution to North America.

In India it is known to occur in Andaman and Nicobar, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh (Raipur, Shivpuri), Maharasthra (Kini, Kotoli, Ahmednagar, Akola, Amaravati, Buldhana, Chandrapur, Dhule, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Nasik, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane, Yavatamal ), Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu (Chengalpattu, Kanyakumari, Madurai, North Arcot, South Arcot, Ramanathapuram, Salem, Trichirapalli, Tirunelveli-near Thirumalaikovil, Kanyakumari-Thengampatnam, Salem, Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram-Sundarapandiyapattam, Tanjore, Madras), Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Cook 1996, Verma 2001, Lakshminarasimhan 1996, BSI Coimbatore).

In the Arabian Peninsula it is known from the Asir region of Saudi Arabia (Chaudhary 2001), the Hajar Mountains (Jongbloed 2003), Dhofar and northern Oman (Ghazanfar 1992) and a wide area in Yemen (Wood 1997, Al Khulaidi in prep.).
Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia); Bahamas; Bangladesh; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Botswana; Brazil; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada (British Columbia, Ontario); Cayman Islands; Central African Republic; Chad; China (Hainan, Yunnan); Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands (Cook Is.); Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Djibouti; Dominican Republic; Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland)); Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; French Guiana; French Polynesia (Society Is.); Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India (Andaman Is., Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nicobar Is., Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Sulawesi); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Jamaica; Japan (Nansei-shoto); Kenya; Kiribati (Gilbert Is.); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Montserrat; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Panama; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Rwanda; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Martin (French part); Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); South Africa; South Sudan; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; United States (Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaiian Is. - Introduced, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas); Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuela (mainland), Venezuelan Antilles); Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Fiji; Tonga
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1900
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


This is a very common and gregarious species where it occurs.

Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is an annual herb, potently grows in clumps, gregarious in shallow water, particularly common in fallow rice fields, sometimes in brackish water by the sea and also grows in wet sandy localities (Cook 1996, Yadav and Sardesai 2002).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: No

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is an important herb, which has a high medicinal value. It is used as a analgesic drug, its leaves are used in the treatment of rainbow sickness, fever, backache, stiff neck. An infusion of the leaves is used to relieve headaches and diarrhoea. The external part of the plant is used for fire sickness, fever and body rashes (Daniel and Moerman 1998).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

No threats have been reported for this species.


Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are known to be taken for this species.

Citation: Kumar, B. 2015. Eleocharis geniculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T164219A79751216. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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