|Scientific Name:||Bacopa monnieri|
|Species Authority:||(L.) Wettst.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Lansdown, R.V., Knees, S.G. & Patzelt, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Ravikumar, K., Narasimhan, D., Juffe Bignoli, D. & García, N.|
|Contributor(s):||Molur, S., Rhazi, L., Grillas, P., Rhazi, M., Flanagan, D. & Rehel, S.|
This species is assessed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.
Bacopa monnieri is distributed in tropics and subtropics of the world: in Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Viet Nam and Pakistan. It is also found in Florida, Hawaii and southern states of USA and the Meditearranean Basin.
In India it is found in Andaman, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.
In the Arabian Peninsula, this species has been recorded from Bahrain, Kuwait, northern and southern Oman, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Yemen including Socotra. It occurs throughout the southern and western Peninsula.
Native:Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Bahrain; Barbados; Belize; Bhutan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Cambodia; Chile; China; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; India (Andaman Is., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal); Indonesia; Jamaica; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Madagascar; Malaysia; Martinique; Mexico; Mozambique; Nepal; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Lucia; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Swaziland; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago; United Arab Emirates; United States (Florida, Hawaiian Is.); Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra, South Yemen)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There is no information available on population trends in this species. However, the populations are generally healthy and the species is widespread.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Bacopa monnieri is a perennial or sometimes annual. It grows gregariously and often forms dense mats in marshy places, the banks of pools and along streams and ditches. It can tolerate brackish water. It is mostly found in rice fields. Propagation is often achieved through cuttings. Bacopa monnieri is known to grow under varying soil and climatic conditions. The plant performs exceptionally well in poorly drained soils and waterlogged areas under subtropical conditions.
In the Arabian Peninsula, this species is described as fringing mountain pools and some wadis. If the water supply is continuous, it often colonizes small irrigated fields beneath date palms (Western 1989). In Oman, it is often found in wet, damp or moist places, sometimes inundated with changing water level, by streams, wadis, and pools.
|Use and Trade:||
Bacopa monnieri has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for centuries. It is used in the treatment of a number of disorders, particularly those involving anxiety, intellect and poor memory. Traditionally, it was used as a brain tonic to enhance memory development, learning, and concentration. It is also sold for aquaria.
There is no evidence that this species is used in the Arabian Peninsula.
On the Arabian Peninsula, there are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.
There are no conservation measures in place and none needed.
|Citation:||Lansdown, R.V., Knees, S.G. & Patzelt, A. 2013. Bacopa monnieri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 May 2015.|
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