|Scientific Name:||Ommastrephes bartramii (Lesueur, 1821)|
Loligo bartramii Lesueur, 1821
|Taxonomic Notes:||Ommastrephes bartramii has a cosmopolitan distribution in temperate to subtropical waters. However, genetic tests of populations in different oceans, to determine if gene flow occurs, have not been made.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Young, R., Vecchione, M. & Böhm, M.|
Ommastrephes bartramii has been assessed as Least Concern because it is an oceanic species with a worldwide geographic distribution and is only subject to fishing pressure in some regions of its range. However, more research is still needed on its ecology and biology, particularly since fishing areas may be expanded in the future.
|Range Description:||This species has a cosmopolitan distribution in temperate to subtropical waters. In the North Pacific it is found between approximately 20o - 50oN (Bower and Ishii 2005).|
Native:Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Belgium; Benin; Bermuda; Brazil; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; China; Colombia; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Dominica; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Fiji; France; Gabon; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; India; Ireland; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Panama; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – western central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northeast; Pacific – southwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||According to Roper et al. (2010), the total instantaneous biomass of this species is 3-3.5 million tonnes in the North Pacific, 2-2.5 million tonnes in each of the South Pacific, South Atlantic and North Atlantic and 1-1.5 million tonnes in the Indian Ocean.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is an pelagic, oceanic squid occurring in subtropical and temperate waters around the world. Near the North Pacific subarctic boundary zone squid occur at depths of less than 40 m by night and depths of 150-300 m by day, however at least some squid appear to remain in shallow water in both day and night (Young and Vecchione 2009). Whilst in subtropical waters they appear to spend the night feeding at shallow depths between 0 and 70 m, before descending to deeper depths (approx. 700 m) during the day (Young and Vecchione 2009). In the North Atlantic they occur at 540-1,050 m by day and from near surface waters to 300 m by night (Young and Vecchione 2009). Similarly, in the South Atlantic they occur from 530 to 950 m by day and in near surface waters by night (Young and Vecchione 2009). Small squid (<180 mm in mantle length) have been observed to glide over the surface like flying fish in both day and night (Young and Vecchione 2009).|
The North Pacific population of O. bartramii makes an annual migration between favourably warm subtropical spawning grounds to northern feeding grounds in cooler temperate waters close to the Subarctic boundary (Young and Vecchione 2009). The population is split into two spawning populations: a more northern autumn cohort in the eastern North Pacific and a winter-spring cohort in the eastern and western North Pacific (Young and Vecchione 2009). The absence of an autumn cohort in the western North Pacific may be explained by the Kuroshio Extension Current carrying squid into central waters and away from western spawning grounds (Young and Vecchione 2009). Males and females of both cohorts have different migration patterns. Males from the autumn cohort do not migrate whereas females travel north to feeding grounds (Young and Vecchione 2009). In the winter-spring cohort both sexes migrate northwards but once males reach 25 cm in mantle length they stop migrating, while females continue to migrate northwards (Young and Vecchione 2009).
The life span of this species is approximately one year with females attaining the largest body sizes at maturity (Young and Vecchione 2009). Spawning in the North Pacific occurs throughout the year with peaks in autumn and winter-spring (Young and Vecchione 2009). Oocytes in females probably develop asynchronously with spawning occurring intermittently over a prolonged period of time, and egg masses are unknown (Young and Vecchione 2009). The potential batch fecundity of females is at least 1.4 million small eggs measuring approximately 1.1 mm in length (Young and Vecchione 2009). Paralarvae occur in depths of less than 25 m in both day and night and have been taken over a large proportion of the North Pacific (Young and Vecchione 2009). This species is an active predator throughout all ontogenetic stages, although its diet requires periodic changes in prey selection. The adults feed principally on myctophids, sternotychids, sauries and to a lesser degree on juveniles of predatory fishes, flying fishes, pelagic shrimps, amphipods and euphausiids and conspecific juveniles (Roper et al. 2010).
|Generation Length (years):||9|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||China, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan fish for this species in the North Pacific (Roper et al. 2010). Prior to the suspension of drift net fishing in 1993 annual catches peaked at 378,000 tonnes per year; the jig fisheries that replaced it now take between 100,000-200,000 tonnes annually (Young and Vecchione 2009). The possible sustainable annual catch rate limit has been estimated between 300,000 and 700,000 tonnes. However, the FAO statistics show a decreasing trend in the catches for the last years (i.e. to about 18,500 tonnes in 2007) (Roper et al. 2010).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is heavily fished in the North Pacific with recent catches via jigging between 100,000 and 200,000 tons per year (Ichii et al. 2009).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended in order to determine the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology of this species.|
|Citation:||Barratt, I. & Allcock, L. 2014. Ommastrephes bartramii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T163163A979160.Downloaded on 19 July 2018.|
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