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Sepia esculenta

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA CEPHALOPODA SEPIOLOIDA SEPIIDAE

Scientific Name: Sepia esculenta
Species Authority: Hoyle, 1885
Common Name(s):
English Golden Cuttlefish
French Seiche dorée
Spanish Sepia dorada
Taxonomic Notes: Misidentifications with Sepia elliptica Hoyle, 1885 and Sepia hoylei Ortmann, 1888 (Reid et al. 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2009-03-14
Assessor(s): Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.
Reviewer(s): Reid, A., Rogers, Alex & Bohm, M.
Contributor(s): Herdson, R. & Duncan, C.
Justification:
Sepia esculenta has been assessed as Data Deficient as it has a wide geographic distribution and is only fished intensively in certain regions (e.g. East China Sea). Hence the species as a whole is likely unaffected by fishing activity but there are not enough data available to confirm this. Therefore, we currently consider this species to be Data Deficient.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a geographic distribution that extends from southern Japan (central Honshu), along the coast of China to Viet Nam in the south (Reid et al. 2005). Its range encompasses Taiwan, Province of China and northern Philippines, as well as the East and South China Seas (Reid et al. 2005). Its range may extend further south to Singapore and Indonesia (Reid et al. 2005).
Countries:
Native:
China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanghai, Zhejiang); Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Philippines; Taiwan, Province of China (Taiwan, Province of China (main island)); Viet Nam
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size of this species is unknown.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is demersal and inhabits sandy substrates (Reid et al. 2005). It feeds on crustaceans and small fish. Animals move into deep water during winter and return to shallow waters in spring to spawn (Norman 2003). Spawning occurs between spring and early summer (Reid et al. 2005). Males guard females and prior to mating the male gives colourful displays (Reid et al. 2005). The eggs are often laid onto elongate substrates such as seaweed and sunken branches (Reid et al. 2005). The sticky egg cases accumulate debris as camouflage (Reid et al. 2005). Depending on water temperature the direct developing young hatch in about 30 to 80 days (Reid et al. 2005).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In the Philippines this species is caught for subsistence (Reid et al. 2005). In contrast, it is fished commercially in the East China Sea off China and western Japan (Reid et al. 2005). Its flesh is considered tasty in many Asian countries, for example China and Japan (Reid et al. 2005).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Ocean acidification caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is potentially a threat to all cuttlefish.  Studies have shown that under high pCO2 concentrations, cuttlefishes actually lay down a denser cuttlebone which is likely to negatively affect buoyancy regulation (Gutowska et al. 2010).  This species is fished commercially in the East China Sea and for subsistence off the Philippines (Reid et al. 2005). Its flesh is considered tasty in many Asian countries, for example China and Japan (Reid et al. 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Research is required into trends in population size and the impacts of harvesting and threats impacting this species.

Citation: Barratt, I. & Allcock, L. 2012. Sepia esculenta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2014.
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