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Limonium dendroides

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA MAGNOLIOPSIDA PLUMBAGINALES PLUMBAGINACEAE

Scientific Name: Limonium dendroides
Species Authority: Svent.
Common Name(s):
Spanish Siempreviva Gigante

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-17
Assessor(s): Reyes Betancort, J.A. & González González, R.
Reviewer(s): Peraza Zurita, M.D. & Bilz, M.
Justification:
Limonium dendroides is classed as Critically Endangered due to its highly restricted and fragmented distribution, with an area of occupancy of 7 km², a total population size of around 20 individuals, unevenly distributed throughout different small subpopulations, and declining trends reported for its presence. It appears restricted to sheltered sites within its potential habitat. Grazing animals, landslides, droughts and collection, limit the expansion of the species.


Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Limonium dendroides is endemic to the island of La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain (Reyes Betancort and González González 2004), where it can be found growing from 175 to 850 m asl, distributed in four scattered locations: Barranco de Argaga, Guarimiar-El Azadoe-El Palmarejo, Barranco de El Cabrito and Barranco de La Villa. Its area of occupancy has been reported to be 7 km². Three more locations were reported in the past and are now considered disappeared (Gobierno de Canarias 2004).

Countries:
Native:
Spain (Canary Is.)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Its population size was estimated in 39 individuals in 2003 (Commission of the European Communities 2009). Other sources reported 21 specimens (Reyes Betancort and González González 2004). Its population appears irregularly distributed: two individuals have been found in Barranco de Argaga; eight in Guarimiar-El Azadoe-El Palmarejo; nine in Barranco de El Cabrito and two in Barranco de La Villa.
Subpopulations are mainly formed by adult individuals and recruitment is very low. Auto-incompatibility and incompatibility among individuals make sexual reproduction difficult. Decreasing trends have been observed for its population size (Gobierno de Canarias 2004).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species can be found mainly in inaccessible small ledges facing east and northeast. Ideally it grows in areas where the community Mayteno-Juniperion canariensis is potentially possible (Commission of the European Communities 2009). It can also be found in more xerophytic sites, where Kleinio-Euphorbion occurs. Frequent accompanying species are: Rumex lunaria, Convolvulus floridus, Bituminaria bituminosa, Carlina salicifolia, Euphorbia berthelotii, Sonchus ortunoi, Sideritis gomerae ssp. perezii and Bupleurum salicifolium (Reyes Betancort and González González 2004).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is collected because of its ornamental value.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Predation and grazing are the most important threats to this species (Reyes Betancort and González González 2004). Collection, landslides and occasional droughts have been also reported as threats to the species and its habitat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Annex II of the Habitat Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is included as species "En peligro de extinción" in the national catalogue of threatened species and in the regional catalogue of protected species of the Canary Islands. It is listed CR B2ab(iii); C2a(i); D in the Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008).

It occurs within the protected areas Parque Rural de Valle Gran Rey, Monumento Natural Barranco del Cabrito (SCI) and SCI de Barranco Argaga y Cuenca de Benchijigua-Guarimiar.

Reinforcement measures have been implemented in the location of El Azadoe. Seeds are stored in the germplasm bank Banco de Germoplasma del Jardín Botánico Viera y Clavijo and ex situ produced plants can be found in the Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest. Plants have been produced in vitro at the Conservatoire Botanique de Porquerolles and afterwards cultivated in the Jardín Botánico Viera y Clavijo and in the Vivero y Centro de Visitantes del Parque Nacional de Garajonay.

Plant material from every subpopulation should be collected and stored in germplasm banks. Ex situ cultivation should be developed and population reinforcement actions must be kept in place. Monitoring should be implemented in new potential distribution areas.

Citation: Reyes Betancort, J.A. & González González, R. 2013. Limonium dendroides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 September 2014.
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